**THE
OCTAGON EARTHWORKS OF NEWARK OHIO, THE STONEHENGE OF NORTH AMERICA.**

Figure 1: The huge Octagon & Circle structure of Newark Ohio, occupying an area of approx. 3000 X 2000 feet of terrain. It was but one of a cluster of interrelating earth-mound structures scattered over an area of about 4 square miles.As early European settlers of North America ventured westward into Ohio, they encountered particularly large, ancient earthworks structures on the landscape, especially in Licking County. Evidence across the New England States and extending down the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers to Florida, suggested the former existence of an extensive, "high civilisation" that had once occupied vast tracts of North America. These people became known, in popular literature, as the Mound Builders.

By the early 1800's there was much speculation concerning the former high civilisation, resulting in destructive excavations into the remnant mounds by, primarily, treasure seeking "money diggers". This unfortunate activity resulted in the loss of many valuable artefacts, which today would aid us in identifying the ethnic and cultural pedigree of the Mound Builders.

Although thousands of skeletons and amazing artefacts are documented, as having been located in the American mounds (tumuli), their significance has been consistently downplayed or ignored in scientific circles. All pervading, "Isolationist" concepts dominate the policy of the Smithsonian Institute, and the Museum has a bad track record of losing problem artefacts...documented as having been received by them.

The Smithsonian appears to be particularly adept at making the overly large stature, "mound skeletons" ...some skulls sporting double rows of teeth...disappear without trace.

For excellent references pertaining to "mound skeletons", some recorded as having "double rows of teeth", see:http://greatserpentmound.org/articles/giants.htmlPre- American revolution, and latter American documents, provide a large body of information regarding North American "finds" and observations, spanning two or three centuries, by respectable organisations and individuals of note (including George Washington).

One such organisation was

The American Antiquarian Society, who publishedArchaeologia Americana, containingTransactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, Worchester, New York(circa 1820).There was tremendous public interest in the archaic,

(vedettes...elevated positions for sentinels),'military works,...walls and ditches...forts, cemeteries, temples, altars, camps, towns, villages, race grounds and other places of amusement, habitations of chieftains, videtteswatchtowers and monuments(stonework),...(high cairn altars?),wells with stones at their mouths...stone tumuli(some massive).tumulus(earth burial)mounds...pottersware... mirrors...metals(varied)...swords...excavations'The following extracts are taken from a very popular "bestseller" book called,

"View of the Hebrews", first published in Poultney, Rutland County, Vermont in 1823, with an enlarged edition reissued in 1825:

(the author goes on to mention a chain of large, nearby forts and strategically located, walled, defensive watchtowers).'They have left us perfect specimens of circles, squares, octagons and parallel lines'.

'We now see that they possessed the art of working metals'.

'Near Newark, in Licking County, Ohio...There is a fort including forty acres whose walls are ten feet high. It has eight gateways, each of the width of about fifteen feet'He also mentions

The author, in speaking further of these linking, double walls, says that,'two parallel walls', linking 'places of fortifications at some distance'.He goes on to speculate that this set could extend over a distance of'They have been traced a mile or two and are clearly visible'.Excavations into 2 tumuli mounds, near this complex, produced,'thirty miles'.'Rock crystals, some of them very beautiful, and hornstone, suitable for arrow and spear heads, and a little lead, sulphur and iron were all that I could ascertain'.

"Old fragments of potters ware have been picked up'.The author mentioned that these were, 'ornamented with lines on the outside, curious and ingenious; and had glazing on the inside'.

'Pieces of copper have at various times been found amongst these ancient works'.

In speaking of the lack of fully intact iron artefacts, the author states,

'Tools of iron not being found in these works is no sign that the authors did not possess them. For had they been there they would, no doubt, long since have been dissolved by rust. Some remains of iron articles are found...'In writing about fort and mound structures found at Scioto, Circleville, Ohio, the author states,

'The square and circle of these forts are said to be most exact; and are thought to indicate much mathematical skill; as not the least error can be detected in their device'.The author goes on to speak of a mound structure in the centre of the'round fort',and says,'This mound has been removed and its contents explored. Some things found in it shall be noted. Two human skeletons. A great quantity of heads, either for arrows or spears. They were so large as to induce a belief that they must be for the latter. The handle of a small sword or large knife, made of an elk's horn was here found, and it is now in a museum at Philadelphia. A silver ferrule encompassed the end containing the blade; which silver ferrule, though black, was not much injured by rolling ages. The blade was gone by rust. But in the hole of the handle was left the oxide, or rust, of the iron, of similar shape and size of the shank formerly inserted'. Some bricks, well fired were here found. And a large mirror of the length of three feet, half a foot in breadth, and one inch and a half thick, formed of isinglass, and on it a plate of iron "which (says the writer who was a witness) had become an oxide;" or plate of rust. "The mirror (he adds) answered the purpose for which it was intended very well"...'.Commenting on other mound excavations, the author writes the following extracts,

'Under its base in the centre lay a skeleton...On the breast lay a piece of copper; also a curious stone of five inches in length, two of breadth, with two perforations through it, containing a string of sinews of some animal. On this string were many beads of ivory, or bone. The whole appeared to have been designed to wear upon the neck as a kind of breastplate'.

'Here a great wall encloses a hundred and ten acres; the wall twelve feet in height, with a ditch about twenty feet wide. It has an adjacent enclosure of sixteen acres, the walls like the other. In a "sacred enclosure" are six mounds. The immense labours of this place, and cemeteries filled with human bones, denote that a great people, and of some degree of civilization in ancient days dwelt here'.

'A stone mound was discovered in the vicinity of Licking river, near Newark, Ohio; and several others in different places. These contained human bones and such articles as the following; "urns, ornaments of copper, heads of spears &c. of the same metal, as well as metals of copper."...'

' A minister of Virginia, writing to the Antiquarian Society, relative to ancient Indian monuments at Grave Creek, near the mouth of the Monongahela, says; "In one of the tumuli which was opened about twenty years since, sixty copper beads were found. Of these I procured ten.- They were made of coarse wire - hammered out - cut at unequal lengths. They were soldered together in an awkward manner - They were encrusted with verdigrise; but the inside was pure copper. This fact shows that these ancient American inhabitants were not wholly unacquainted with the use of metals"... Along the Ohio, some of it (their pottery) is equal to anything of the kind now manufactured" - " It is well glazed or polished; and the vessel well shaped." Many ornaments of silver and copper were found. Many wells were dug through the hardest rocks...A crucible was found in a tumulus near Chilicothe, which is now in the hands of S. Williams, Esq. of that place. It will bear an equal degree of heat with those now used in the glass manufactories; and appears made of the same materials...A stone pipe is noted as found six feet in alluvial earth; the brim of which is curiously wrought in high relief, and on the front side a handsome female face...In removing a large mound in Marietta bones of a person were found. "lying immediately over, or on the forehead of the body, were found three large circular bosses, or ornaments, for a sword belt or a buckler; they are composed of copper, overlaid with a thick plate of silver. The fronts of them are slightly convex, with a depression, like a cup, in the centre, and measure two inches and a quarter across the face of each. On the back side, opposite the depressed portion, is a copper rivet or nail, around which are two separate plates, by which they were fastened to the leather. Two small pieces of leather were found lying between the plates of one of the bosses". "Near the side of the body was found a plate of silver, which appeared to have been the upper part of a sword scabbard; it is six inches in length and two inches in breadth, and weighs one ounce. It has no ornaments or figures, but has three longitudinal ridges, which probably correspond to the edges or ridges of the sword; it seems to have been fastened to the scabbard by three or four rivets, the holes of which yet remain in the silver...'Two or three broken pieces of copper tube, were also found, filled with iron rust. These pieces, from their appearance, composed the lower end of the scabbard, near the point of the sword. No sign of the sword itself was discovered, except the appearance of rust above mentioned...'

'Near the feet was found a piece of copper weighing three ounces. From its shape it appears to have been used as a plumb, or for an ornament, as near one of the ends is a circular crease, or groove for tying a thread; it is round, two inches and a half in length, one inch in diameter at the centre, and half an inch at each end...'

(see'These ancient works continue all the way down the Ohio river to the Mississippi, where they increased and were far more magnificent'View of the Hebrewspgs. 190 -198).The 1823 book,

"View of the Hebrews", by a Methodist minister named Ethan Smith, was a compilation of testimonials and observations going back to the time of the Pilgrims, relative to evidence of an extinct, high civilisation in North America.It caused such a sensation that a second, enlarged edition (1825) was essential to stay abreast of demand. The book also lent impetus to the "money digging" and "Spanish treasure hunting" frenzy that swept the New England States or frontier territories during the 1820's.

The Mormon Church founder, Joseph Smith (no relation to Ethan Smith), whose 1830's congregation lived for a time in Lake County, Northern Ohio, earlier used

"View of the Hebrews"as the conceptual basis of his developing religion and as his main source of reference when writing his religious allegory,"The Book of Mormon"...first published in 1830.Thus, an American religion was born from the very popular "mound origin" speculations of the early 1800's.

Figure 2: An old map of the Newark earthworks, drawn by D Wyrick in the year 1860. Although the map is considered to be inaccurate for establishing precise distances between structures, it does show the extent of ancient mound building endeavour within a 4 square mile area of Newark, Ohio. An embankment roadway, beginning at this complex, is thought to have once run continuously for 63-miles to "High Bank", where there was a sister site to the Newark Octagon. Sadly, many structures drawn on the Wyrick map have been destroyed by city development since the 19th century.

WHO BUILT THE OCTAGON OF NEWARK OHIO AND FOR WHAT PURPOSE WAS IT BUILT?If we are to await the anthropological and DNA fingerprinting evidence, related to mound builder's skeletons, then perhaps results will be available in a few decades when and if the political climate, affecting valid archaeological incentives, makes a dramatic detour in favour of uninhibited scientific investigation.

Political correctness and the need to accommodate present racial sensitivity issues or requirements, disallows establishment archaeologists from undertaking realistic, unencumbered investigations, within the confines of the United States.

The prevailing misconception is that the Octagon earthworks were built by the Hopewell Indians, somewhere between 200 BC or the centuries that followed thereafter. The Cherokee nation also lays claim to a longstanding cultural association with the earthworks.

Although no-one, least of all this author, wishes to deny the Hopewell or Cherokee people a part of their true legacy or diminish in importance their traditional links to the earthworks structures, we must still assess the Octagon's most remote origins realistically.

What can be gleaned from much of the anthropological evidence, from described and drawn skeletal remains located within the early mounds, would suggest the presence of European peoples. This is further supported by much of the artefact evidence, which caused Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Instituted to write,

'Much more evidence of like tenor night be presented here, as, for example, the numerous instances where articles of European manufacture have been found in mounds where their presence could not be attributed to intrusive burials…'(The Problem Of The Ohio Mounds, by Cyrus Thomas, pg. 24, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1880).Thomas also states that the tradition of mound building persisted amongst many North American Indian tribes into the 19th century.Recent DNA analysis supports the theory of a very early European presence in North America.

'Some scientists think that the earliest(North American)colonizers could have started out somewhere in Europe, not in Asia as previously thought. That idea is rooted in a rare genetic link called haplogroup X - DNA passed down through women that dates back more than 30,000 years.Recent genetic samples from remains in Illinois show that the rare European DNA was around centuries before European exploration. Today, haplogroup X is found in about 20,000 American Indians'(Associated Press 2000).Indian legends, as recorded in the earliest North American books, show that the earthworks of Ohio were already in place when the Indians first settled in the region...and had been built by "white Indians".

'The Indians are in agreement in saying that their fathers came from the west; they found the works of the Ohio just as they are to be seen today. But the date of this migration of the Indians from the west to the east varies according to the nations...Another tradition claims that the works of the Ohio were raised by the white Indians. These white Indians, according to the red Indians, were to have come from the east; and when they left the lake without shores (the sea), they came dressed like the palefaces of today'(From Rene Chateaubriand, "Voyage to America").The overly large skeletons of the earliest mound builders, many historically recorded as achieving 8 foot of stature, sometimes also described as having "double rows of teeth" and extra digits per hand, would allude to the Nephinim people of the Near East. These people survived up until the time of King David of Israel, although there were few of them left by that late epoch. They interbred with other regional groups of the Near East and a strain or lineage of these people was repatriated to Israel in 536 BC, after release from Babylonian captivity.

The mathematical evidence suggests that the Octagon and other regional, geometric earthworks were built during the worldwide mound building/ coded structure epoch of about 5,000-years ago. Let's weigh the evidence in the balance and address the following issues:

1.The measurement standard used in the construction of the Octagon earthworks is the so-called, British Standard of measurement, which isn't British at all, but has a pedigree back to Egypt and the pyramids of the Giza Plateau.

2.The entire structure is a mnemonic device for the preservation and recall of the "codes of civilisation", which are based upon solar, lunar or stellar cycles and their calculable durations. It was also very functional on a "day to day" basis as a static computer for determining how the Earth was situated in relation to the greater cosmos.

3.The codes and specific lengths referred to are fully traceable back to Great Britain, then onward to the Near East. They also occur at many other locations around the globe, showing that the Octagon's architects were fully conversant with internationally dispersed and utilised astronomical methodologies.

ACCURACY OF RESEARCH MATERIALS.It has been of considerable concern to researchers, resident in the United States, that any investigations related to the Octagon be founded on the most precise measurements available.

To this end, all drawings appearing in this article are AutoCAD reproductions of the 1959 survey of the Octagon Earthworks, carried out by Abrams Aerial Survey Corporation.

The official materials used were donated by Patricia Mason of the, "Friends of the Mounds" organisation, Newark Ohio.

This researcher has been given the following assurance, by the Newark City Engineer, Mr. Brian Morehead, concerning the integrity of the City Engineer's map plans:

'Regarding the 1959 aerial photos and topographic maps that came from our office, I feel very confident in their accuracy. As with any of these type of maps, they are most accurate in the center portion of each panel, maybe in the center two-thirds of the map. There is the chance of a little distortion around the edges, due to the camera lenses, I believe. But in my experience in matching these maps up together, we've have had very good results. Keep in mind that these maps were done by a very reputable contractor (Abrams, who I believe is still in business) hired by the City for this particular purpose, back in 1959. The City has used these topo maps countless times as the basis for sewer, waterline, and roadway plans, and as far as I know, we have had no problem with the accuracy'.As a second check of overall accuracy, the mounds appearing on the 1959 City Engineer's map have been overlaid by a survey completed by James A. Marshall of Roselle, Illinois.

Mr. Marshall, a professional surveyor, is recognized, in many quarters, as a leading authority on North American Mounds. In the last 40-years he has surveyed in excess of 225 mound structures throughout the United States. His personal dossier of information, relating to these rapidly disappearing, neglected archaeological sites, is of tremendous value to the worldwide research community.

Here is the result of combining the James A. Marshall survey with that of Abrams Aerial Survey Corporation.

Figure 3: A reconstruction of the 1959 Engineer's Map of the huge Octagon complex, with all contour lines overdrawn in AutoCAD for 3D imagery. The red lines and dots represent the coordinate shape of the earthworks, as taken from James A. Marshall's plan. The two surveys compliment each other, as to the shape or general layout of the structures, sufficiently to proceed with analysis. Because of the massive size of the Octagon earthworks structure the multiple lines shown here seem to meld into each other, but closer in the lines separate to produce greater clarity.

Figure 4: A closer view, showing the separate contour lines making up individual structural components of the complex. In this sample, the Octagon is set to its correct North-South alignment. The red line running through the embankment is indicative of James A. Marshall's survey.High resolution topographical photos of the Newark, Ohio Octagon can be viewed at:

http://terraserver.homeadvisor.msn.com/image.asp?S=11&T=1&X=941&Y=11086&Z=17Besides the foregoing resources, researchers can also access the following items for study of the Newark mound structures:

**The surveys of Middleton published by Cyrus Thomas in his 1894 Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology.**

**A map by James & Charles Salisbury (circa 1862).**

**A map by Squire & Davis (1848).**

BUILDING THE OCTAGON ACCORDING TO EGYPTIAN PYRAMID CODES.By about 4000 BC the country of Egypt was becoming increasingly arid and the prospects for successful cultivation of the land looked grimmer with the passage of each year. The encroaching desert forced the inhabitants of Egypt to seek out more verdant territories, leading to a mass exodus of Egypt's population into the virgin territories of Europe and toward other continents around the globe.

Remnants of the ancient "waymark trails" out of the Near East, composed of cairn markers, dolmens, stone circles & standing stones were still very much in evidence at the beginning of the 20th century. These trails extended all the way along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa to the Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar region), up the coastline of Spain, Portugal and France to Scandinavia & into the British Isles. Another set of "waymark trails", from the Near East, extended toward China and Korea.

To each new territory the migrants went, they carried their Egyptian measurement standard and the specific astronomical/ navigational numbers used, over aeons of time, for maintenance of functioning society. Structures were built in the new territories and the ancient, "codes of civilisation" were encrypted into them for eternal mnemonic recall. Through war and all other disruptive disasters that beset humankind, these structures would survive as sentinels to the sacred codes.

By such means, enlightened survivors, returning to ruined homelands after calamitous events, would find the codes awaiting them within the old, purpose built, repository structures. Extracting the special knowledge and recalculating the Earth's position relative to the bodies of the cosmos, would lead to re-establishing successful, working civilisation.

So let's now reconstruct the Newark Octagon complex, according to the codes of Egypt. For this we will use the Egyptian measurement standard, which was carried to and survived more completely intact in Great Britain than in most other worldwide locations.

Vestiges of the system continue to be used up until the present day, especially in the United States, which is the last bastion or stronghold for its preservation. Elsewhere, including Great Britain, it has come under assault by the advocates of metrification and its use is banned under penalty of law amongst E.U. countries.Those who assail this most ancient of measurement systems are oblivious to and ignorant of its noble pedigree, which spanned the ages and was at the foundation of "civilisation" for many nations. It is the same standard that built the pyramids of Egypt and the true, ancient, universal codes, reposing in sites like the Octagon, can be revealed by no other system of measurement.

Here are the main linear measurements used universally around the ancient world:

THE SEXAGESIMAL MEASUREMENTS:

1.The inch (as per the modern British Standard inch).

2.The foot (12 inches).

3.The Celtic common cubit (18 inches).

4.The yard (3 feet)

THE SEPTIMAL MEASUREMENTS:

1.The Celtic Royal Cubit (21 inches).

2.The reed (126 inches or 10.5 feet)

THE "11" NUMERICAL SERIES:

1.The link (7.92 inches).

2.The fathom (5.5 feet).

3.The rod/ perch (3 fathoms or 16.5 feet).

4.The chain (66 feet).

5.The furlong or furrowlong (660 feet)

6.The mile (5280 feet or 1760 yards).

7.The league (3.125 miles or 16500 feet...also 198000 inches, 25000 links, 3000 fathoms, 1000 rods/ perches, 250 chains, 25 furlongs or furrowlongs).

THE PHI BASED MEASUREMENTS (refining PHI to 1.6180339...note it was often refined to 1.618).

1.The PHI inch (1.6180339 inches).

2.The PHI foot (12 PHI inches or 19.4164068 British Standard inches).

3.The Megalithic Yard (20 PHI inches or 32.360678 inches).

THE ROUNDED PHI MEASUREMENTS (refining PHI to 1.62).

1.The rounded PHI inch (1.62 inches).

2.The rounded PHI foot (19.44 inches).

3.The rounded Megalithic Yard (32.4 inches).

THE GEODETIC, EARTH CIRCUMFERENCE, MNEMONIC RODS (also referred to as Dynastic Egyptian royal cubits).

1.The sexagesimal rod (20.61818182 inches...this was based on viewing the ring of the Earth as24,741.81818 milesand breaking it down by degrees, minutes and seconds of arc. Similarly it could be divided into 320th parts under an "8" series or into reeds in a "7" series.

2.The "11" series rod (20.625 inches...this was based on viewing the ring of the Earth as24,750 milesand breaking it down by leagues, miles, furlongs, chains, rods/ perches, fathoms and links).

3.The PHI based rod (20.59315873 inches...this was based on viewing the ring of the earth as24,711.79047 milesand breaking it down by PHI increments).

Note: These rod sizes, listed in inches, were multiplied by 1200 and then the resultant number read as miles.The formula for finding the exact length of each rod is easily extractible from the Great Pyramid and it was a simple process for the Priest/ mathematicians to apply the formula. All they had to do was remember the pyramid's dimensions and, if these were ever forgotten, they could be retrieved by trigonometry.

The system involved nothing more than reading the Pyramid's height assignments according to a rule of 3,4,5 triangulation, based upon any one of 3 possible length assignments. These were:

1.Sexagesimal assignment: 756 feet (considered as a hypotenuse...and generating an adjacent = 453.6 feet to the height of the altar floor...divided by 22 feet (half the altar's length) = 20.61818182 (read as inches and a rod fashioned accordingly).

2."11" series assignment: 756.25 feet (considered as a hypotenuse...and generating an adjacent = 453.75 feet to the height of the altar floor...divided by 22 feet (half the altar's length) = 20.625 (read as inches and a rod fashioned accordingly).

3.PHI assignment: 280 Megalithic Yards...755.0824867 feet (considered as a hypotenuse...and generating an adjacent = 453.049492 feet to the height of the altar floor...divided by 22 feet (half the altar's length) = 20.59315873 (read as inches and a rod fashioned accordingly).

4.It will here be mentioned that there was a fourth Royal cubit rod in somewhat more limited scientific usage and it's mathematical merits are as follows:As we proceed it will be demonstrated that particular numbers were highly important to the ancient system of astronomical/ navigational calculations. Two of the very important numbers to be discussed related to the Octagon are 1728 and 51.84. Particular measurements found at the base of the Great Pyramid in the "paving slab" section reveal that there was a measurement that alludes to 20 X 1.728 feet or 34.56 feet (a dynamic number incorporated into the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge). This suggests a Royal Cubit of 1.728 feet or

20.736 inches.When the selfsame rule of finding the size of the Earth is applied to this "Cubit" (that of multiplying the 20.735 figure by 1200 and then reading the resultant figure in miles) the total is

24883.2 miles.Inasmuch as the official figure for the equatorial size of the Earth is24902.4 miles, the ancient shortfall is only 19.2 miles in circumference and 6 miles in diameter. In consideration of the fact that our Earth is a somewhat misshapen oblate spheroid, it all gets a little academic at these tolerances and the ancient figure is arguably about as good as the modern one.To calculate the ancient number used to describe

the speed of rotation of the Earth, simply divide 24883.2 miles by 24 hours, which equals1036.8 MPH.This figure is518.4X 2 MPH and goes a long way toward explaining why the base of the Great Pyramid was 5184 square reeds, its side angle 51.84-degrees and its total Egyptian acreage 51.845 for the 4 sides and base area combined. As will be demonstrated, the intended azimuth angle of the Octagon from its altar platform, through the Avenue to the NE gateway, is 51.84-degrees.The distance from the centre of the Octagon's circle component to the centre of the "Great Circle" (Newark showgrounds) embankment circle is 6300 feet. This distance is

1/20736thof the size of the Earth under the sexagesimal geodetic system. Some "Royal Cubit" rods found in Egypt approach this 20.736 inch length and the general range is from just under 20.6 inches to just over 20.7 inches.

Note:Each so-called Dynastic Egyptian Royal Cubit listed had its own equivalent "common cubit", based upon dividing the length of each Royal Cubit by 1.16666666. Therefore the lengths of the common rods were:

1.Sexagesimal common rod (17.67272728 inches).

2."11 series" common rod (17.67857144 inches).

3.PHI based common rod (17.65127892 inches). Note: to find the size of the Earth under each of these assignments, multiply the inch value by 1400 and read the resultant figure in miles.These "common" rods, like their "Royal" counterparts, were not (technically) used as a length increment to build the pyramids, which were built to inches, feet, common cubits, Royal Cubits, fathoms & reeds. The Great Pyramid carried both rounded PHI and pure PHI assignments.

Its base length was the whole number of 756 feet, which is also 440 Dynastic Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches. Its height was 280 PHI feet or 453.049492 feet to the top of the altar floor.

CREATING THE OCTAGON'S SKELETON.In the ancient schools of learning, the "Masters of the Craft" taught initiates universal astronomical systems, which were based upon pure geometric principles and special coded numbers.

When a site such as the Octagon was "on the drawing board", in the conceptual stage of design, it was important to make it comply with already known and utilised principles.

There appears, universally, to have been little or no deviation away from clearly understood "hand me down" knowledge, as too much customising and unique innovation could make a site unreadable to all but those who created it.The mathematical principles expressed within a coded structure were akin to a language, and the language had to remain fluent to all generations. For this reason the Octagon, predictably, will have a coded mathematical skeleton resident in its corpus and all layers will relate back to the skeleton. Let's re-create this most primary component of the Octagon's anatomy.

A line is drawn which is 2880 feet in length. The first segmentation of the line occurs at 45 feet inward.

Figure 5: Getting off to a less than impressive start. The line shown extends over a distance of 2880 feet (34560 Inches) or 1066.666666 rounded MY. The rounded MY (Megalithic Yard) increment (32.4 inches) was used because it relates to PHI and all coded reading of numbers could be interpreted in either rounded or exact MY (32.360678 inches) coding. Generally, reading measurements to exact PHI increments was fraught with complexity, but at times it was essential, especially where concentric circles or squares had to be expanded over a site by the PHI ratio.The altar was made to be 45 feet wide from exterior SW to interior NE. Inbuilt features show that the centre region of an exterior alcove, between jutting "horns" of packed earth, represented one extremity benchmark, whereas an interior tier (45 feet NE) formed another.

Eventually, one end of this line will sit to the extreme SW of the Octagon site, whereas the other end will evenly dissect the fullness of the site to midway between the NE gateway and terminate at a point equivalent to the outer perimeter of adjacent embankments.From this overall length the first segmentation, as stated, occurs 45 feet into the line and this represents the width of the altar component within the greater earthworks. The remaining portion of the line now runs for 2835 feet (1050 rounded MY) internally through the site.

The Khafre Pyramid had a perimeter value of 2835 feet.

The value of 2835 feet alludes to a very dynamic lunar code, generally represented as 283.5-days, which is 1/24th of the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days. This exact distance at the Octagon, as stated, was also the sum total of all 4 sides of the Khafre Pyramid @ 708.75 feet per side. The emphasis within the Octagon earthworks is on the moon and Khafre Pyramid relationships are strongly in evidence throughout the site. The distance from the rear benchmark (SW) to the centre or standing position upon the altar top is, visually, 28.35 feet.

The 2835 feet length, expressed as 1050 rounded MY, codes 1050, which number was the basis of the ancient "reed" measurement @ 10.5 feet or 126 inches. This same length (1050 rounded MY or 2835 feet) is, simultaneously, 270-reeds (270-degrees is 3/4ths of 360-degrees) and it will be seen that many of the calibrations related to degree angles, within the Octagon, can be read in reed values.

Alternatively, 2835 feet is 4.5 Greek stadia (stadiums) of 630 feet each and this measurement appears to have been very important to the region of Newark, all the way to "High Bank" Mound, a sister site to the Newark Octagon, 63 miles (?) or 528 stadia distant. The centre-to-centre distance between the Octagon's circle and the "Great Circle" (another circle embankment in Newark) is 6300 feet or 10 Greek stadia.

As a further sampling of codes appearing in profusion, the Menkaure Pyramid @ 356.4 feet per side was 270 feet X 5.28 in perimeter value.

We'll now establish the centre position of the circular embankment at the Octagon.

From the 2nd position, 45 feet across the expanse of the altar, the 3rd position is 534.6 feet yet further inward. This segmentation of the line will mark the epicentre of the Octagon earthwork's circular embankment. Let's, therefore, get this Octagon encasing circle to its correct position on the line and explain the codes that placed it there.

Figure 6: This circle, with a radius of 534.6 feet (diameter 1069.2 feet) is of tremendous importance to the Octagon's circle embankment and sets the limits for the exterior circumference. The circle is, literally, loaded with dynamic codes related to the Great Pyramid and numbers associated with worldwide navigation.The first thing to consider is that if a circle was drawn around the Great Pyramid, such that it brushed each base corner position, it would be, essentially, this size. There were 3 base length assignments used on the Great Pyramid, namely 755.0824867 feet (280 MY of 32.360678 inches each), 756 feet (280 rounded MY of 32.4 inches each) & 756.25 feet (11 series or 137.5 fathoms of 5.5 feet each).

The pure PHI encasing circle would be 533.9239465 feet radius, the rounded PHI circle would be 534.5727265 feet radius and the "11" series circle would be 534.749503 feet radius. It can be observed that the values are very similar and that the true circle related to the literal design dimensions of the Great Pyramid (756 feet) is, essentially, 534.6 feet radius, with less than 4-inches of error.

The length of 534.6 feet is also 198 rounded MY. The diameter would, therefore, be 396 rounded MY. These numbers relate directly to the "11" series navigational system which used an "11" progression for straight-line distance calculations. It is within this system that the league (16500 feet), mile (5280 feet), furlong (660 feet), chain (66 feet), rod/ perch (16.5 feet), fathom (5.5 feet) & link (7.92 inches) were used.

The 198 rounded MY value is used at the Octagon's circle for mnemonic reference to the "11" series system. The sum of 4 X 198 is 792 and the ancient Earth was grid referenced according to 7920 leagues of circumference. The Earth is, quite literally, 7920 miles in equatorial diameter, with only marginal variation off that figure.

The circumference of a circle based upon a 534.6 radius (1069.2 feet diameter) is, essentially, 3360 feet and this number was used widely in antiquity, mostly in its half value of 1680 or as 168. The Great Pyramid was 168 MY high and there were 18 segments of 168 feet in its base perimeter. Some 3,4,5 triangles used on major sites, such as Stonehenge, incorporated an "opposite" of 168 feet.

Possibly the most important factor of the Pyramid's encasing circle @ around 534 feet is that it is a PHI expansion on the furlong length measurement...660 X 1.6180339 = 1067.902374, which is 2 X 533.951187.

Figure 7: This circle embankment in Newark, Ohio, based upon Great Pyramid dimensions, duplicates a modus operandi of Stonehenge, where the encasing circle of the site (excluding the Avenue) had a diameter of 378-feet...half the length of the Great Pyramid. A two-dimensional, half scale representation of the Great Pyramid was also marked out within the defining geometry of Stonehenge.Although low contours at the base of the rising embankment overshoot the 534.6 feet radius, encasing circle marginally in places, it is quite apparent that the Great Pyramid's base dimensions provided the encasing, design template for the Octagon's earthworks circle. This use of Giza Plateau measures will be further corroborated by measurements found within the octagonal component of the huge Newark complex. Let's proceed further with building the site skeleton geometrically then try to fit it into the existing earthworks' layout in its entirety

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Figure 8: The Great Pyramid square housed within its encasing circle. The corners of the square overshoot the 336 rounded MY circle by less than 4 inches. From the centre of the "pyramid" circle and square the next increment that needs to be established is the centre of the octagonal aspect of the Octagon site. We have so far moved down the "skeleton's" centre line in coded distances of 45 feet & 534.6 feet (198 rounded MY).From the centre of the Octagon's circle we move an additional 576 rounded MY (1555.2 feet). The blue circle crossing the centre line designates the position of 576 rounded MY from the centre of the "pyramid" circle and square.

The 576 value was much used in antiquity and the length up the side of the Great Pyramid was 576 feet. The half value of 288 feet was both the design length up the diagonal face of the Menkaure Pyramid from base to apex, as well as the diameter of the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge. At 2880 feet, it is also the defining length of the Octagon complex.

If we go to the midway point between the two centre positions shown (centre of Octagon's circle to centre of octagonal embankments of the Octagon), then it equates to 198 + 288 = 486 rounded MY. This number is of tremendous importance to the lunar nutation cycle and 486-days would equate to 1/14th of the 6804-day period. The number was used primarily in its half and quarter values as 243 and 121.5-days respectively, to give readings of the moon's progress through the cycle in 28 & 56 divisions (hence the 56-posts on the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge).

The number 486 anciently described how to calculate, by use of the reed ruler, the number of solar days in 7.2 lunar years. This was very important to determining the concurrent periods of the Sun & Moon under the Sabbatical Calendar system, which was lunisolar. Seven solar years is 2556.75-days, whereas 7.2 lunar years is 2551.5-days. A reed ruler is 10.5 feet or 5.25 feet X 2. Therefore, using half reeds to do the calculation, 486 X 5.25 (days) = 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years), whereas 487 X 5.25 (days) = 2556.75 days (7 solar years). The Druidic Calendar of Coligny was 4.86 feet long X 2.953125 feet wide. The lunar month endures for 29.53125 days. See,

The Calendar of Colignyarticle, within this website.The distance from the centre of the octagonal region to the end of the line is now reduced to 742.5 feet or 275 rounded MY. A circle is established that is 550 rounded MY (twice 275) in diameter (1485 feet) and it extends to the end point of the "skeleton" line, thus completing it.

The 550 value is found on sites, universally, around the globe and is probably the most used of ancient coded relationships between a linear diameter and the circumference it provided. This relationship was the basis of most ancient navigation, wherein an "11" series diameter delivered a sexagesimal reading on the circumference, very exploitable for accurate degree angle readings when plotting courses. 550 X PI = 1728, which can be effectively divided by 360 producing increments based on "6" (sexagesimal).

Silbury Hill (a conical mound in Southern England) was 1728 feet in circumference and the Great Pyramid was 1728 Royal Cubits, of 21 inches each, in perimeter value.

Figure 9: The last major component part of the site, situated on the centre, line is the Octagon's Avenue, which joins the circle embankment, SW, to the 8 straight embankments of the Octagon proper, NW. Given the sizes of the two defining circles for the Octagon earthworks embankments, this centre space between equates to 280.8 feet (104 rounded MY).Because this is a passageway of reasonable width the two main opposing circles "flatten out" as they converge on the corridor end spaces, which has the effect of allowing the length of the corridor to increase marginally. Corridor lengths of up to 288 or 300 feet appear to be quite achievable, while maintaining mathematical adherence to codes, as well as design symmetry.

The literal, rounded 104 MY Avenue value (52 X 2), which occurs between the complete circles, has significance in a mathematical progression related to the ancient calendar system. Nevertheless, 105 rounded MY seems to be far more dynamic as a candidate for incorporation into the true, coded corridor length.

Several, varied rectangular boxes, representative of the corridor length & width, are geometrically feasible.

These include 288 X 90 feet...equating to 25920 sq feet (the Precession of the equinoxes was considered to endure for 25920 years by ancient astronomer/ mathematicians). A second, slightly smaller box appears to have been 283.5 feet X 80 feet...equating to 22680 sq feet. This second, smaller box, generating two major coded numbers, would relate to the moon's cycle.We'll later overlay several specifically sized rectangles onto the Octagon's Avenue component and make further judgements on the intended coding for this region of the site.

We're getting there slowly with our reconstruction of the Octagon's conceptual design skeleton, with the addition of the last of the vertebrae on the centre spine. We'll now move fully into the octagonal end of the site and add something akin to a rib cage

Perhaps it's time to lay out the Octagon's skeleton according to its correct alignment off north.

The accepted alignment for the Octagon is 51.8-degrees azimuth, but this needs to be refined a minuscule amount if the degree angle is ever to mean anything in terms of universally used, ancient astronomical codes.

In the final analysis we'll combine the completed skeletal geometry with the1959 City Engineer's map and the map's arrow pointer will reside on true North.

Figure 10: The developing geometry has been rotated 38.16-degrees anticlockwise and the centre line now sits on an azimuth angle of 51.84-degrees. This is the same design angle as the faces of the Great Pyramid, as well as the Menkaure Pyramid. Four sets of squares & equivalent circles have been added to the upper area of the drawing.Let's now explain what they mean in terms of ancient astronomical/ geodetic codes:

- The smallest square & circle combination (magenta) is sized to be the same radius as the height of the Khafre Pyramid (472.5 feet). This measurement is, simultaneously, 5670 inches, 175 rounded MY or 45 reeds.
- The Khafre Pyramid was Egypt's pyramid of the moon and all of its major dimensions related to the progress of the moon throughout its 6804-day nutation cycle.
- The Khafre Pyramid also coded the geometric principle of 3,4,5 triangulation. Half its base length was the "adjacent" (3 X 118.125 feet or 354.375 feet...the length in days of the lunar year). The vertical height of Khafre was the "opposite", designed to be 472.5 feet (4 X 118.125 feet) & the diagonal face length was the "hypotenuse", of 590.625 feet (5 X 118.125 feet).
- The base length of the Khafre Pyramid was 708.75 feet, which is 15/16ths of the length of the Great Pyramid (756 feet).
- A full analysis of the Khafre Pyramid's dimensions provides all of the essential information for tracking the moon... from small divisions related to lunar days, weeks and months, to the full duration of its cycle...major standstill to major standstill...18.613-years.

We now move to the larger blue square and circle combination:

- The blue square & circle have radii that are exactly the base length of the Khafre Pyramid (708.75 feet). This length is, simultaneously, 8505 inches, 262.5 rounded MY or 67.5 reeds and all of these numbers relate directly to calibrating the moon's progress within the lunar nutation cycle.

We now move to the still larger green square and circle combination:

- The green square & circle combination have radii values of 275 rounded MY (742.5 feet) and this number assignment relates directly to navigation principles.

We now move to the largest square & circle combination:

- The big red square and circle combination have radii of 850.5 feet and this number is very important to tracking the moon's progress within the lunar nutation cycle.

It is now time to place this highly coded skeleton onto the 1959 Engineer's map to see the result, after which time the squares will be rotated into their correct positions and further layers of the complete body added.

Figure 11: The meticulously coded skeleton placed upon the Octagon site. It can be immediately observed that there are many empirically working relationships, however the upper "squares" of the skeletal geometry have yet to be swung to their correct positions of orientation. As always the essential degree angles of their rotations are regulated by stringent, uncompromising, ancient astronomical codes.To avoid cluttering up the picture and getting everyone very confused, let's look at the squares individually and rotate them to their correct positions one by one. We'll start with the most central magenta square, the radius of which is the same as the height of the Khafre Pyramid of the Giza Plateau.

Figure 12: The magenta square is now rotated 6.84-degrees and falls perfectly onto 4 of the inner mound exterior limits. The alignment through the site, originating in the centre of the Octagon's altar and traversing the Avenue, carries on through two corners of the (Khafre height inspired) square before exiting the site. These corners lay on an azimuth of 51.84-degreesThis square forms a major part of the central template for the degree angle determining calibration, used on the 8 outer embankments. Its side values, @ 90 reeds each, lend themselves admirably to degree angle calibrations.

There were two major systems of stellar angle calculation in place, related to this central template square, which allowed for 'cross-site readings to be taken from 8 positions (the 8 gateways). We'll explore the methods for determining stellar angles as we proceed.

Before analysing the larger "skeletal " squares listed (blue, green and red) it might be prudent to show some PHI relationships happening with this (magenta) one. Let's first of all see what a PHI circle and square would look like if we expanded them by 1/2 PHI (.80901695).

Figure 13: The magenta square and circle have been expanded by 1/2 PHI and now show strong relationships to the embankments. The square passes through the gateways, skimming the bank edges.It will be noted that a larger magenta circle crosses over this square and, in doing so, arcs to the centre crests of the eight embankments. This circle is a 1/2 PHI expansion on the square that it overlays and holds the key to calculating the centre crest positions. Its radius is 721.9158405 feet (2 X 1/2 PHI expansions on 472.5 feet).

We can test this concept by creating two such squares of this exact radius and rotating each of them to differing angles, to see how they sit in relation to the embankment crests.

Figure 14: One square has been rotated anti-clockwise 25.2-degrees and now relates to four embankment crests. The upper right embankment in the above picture lies on an azimuth angle of 64.8-degrees. This azimuth is 12.96-degrees greater than 51.84-degrees...the azimuth angle centrally through the Octagon site, from the altar platform at the base of the Octagon's circle, onward through the Avenue to the space between embankments at the north-eastern most extremity of the Octagon.The value 12.96-degrees is a code applicable to the number used to describe the duration of the "Precession of the equinoxes". Under the ancient system, Precession was calculated to complete a full cycle in 25,920-years. Half that value was 12,960-years.

The 8 embankments are angled away from each other according to a mathematical progression, which relates to 51.84 & 25920 simultaneously (the angle of the Great Pyramid and duration of Precession). Incidentally, 25920 ÷ 500 = 51.84.

The inner lines of 4 embankments shown lie on azimuth angles (clockwise) of 64.8, 154.8, 244.8 & 334.8-degrees respectively. The other square has been rotated clockwise 38.88-degrees from 90-degrees (due east). Its sides now lie on azimuth angles of 38.88, 128.88, 218.88 & 308.88-degrees respectively.

The formula for determining the degree angles of the embankments, based upon the two offset (rotated) squares is:

Overall azimuth of the site (51.84-degrees) plus 12.96-degrees (1/2 Precessional value) = 64.8-degrees. This designates the angle of the NNW embankment. Anticlockwise from that position, the NW embankment lies at 38.88-degrees, which is 25.92 degrees less. The NE embankment is 64.8-degrees + 90-degrees = 154.8-degrees...then to find the angle of the embankment preceding it (NNE) subtract 25.92-degrees = 128.88-degrees...etc.

Not wishing to confuse the issue further, it must be pointed out that the ancient Sabbatical calendar system worked in increments of 13 months of 28-days, 26 bi-weeks or 52 weeks per annum. Whenever there is coding found for 12.96, it can infer or be read as 13... under a different mnemonic system related to the calendar. Alternatively, 25.92 would be read as 26.

Under this symbolic approach to reading further codes into the angles, two of the mounds would equate to 39-degrees (3 X 13) & 65-degrees (5 X 13) respectively, with the other 6 angles treated (symbolically) as 26-degree & 65-degree increases.

The true clockwise angles of the embankments are therefore:

Mound 1. NW 38.88 (add 25.92-degrees) = 64.8 for Mound 2.

Mound 2. NNW (add 64.08-degrees) = 128.88 for Mound 3.

Mound 3. NNE (add 25.92) = 154.8 for Mound 4.

Mound 4. NE (add 64.08-degrees) = 218.88 for Mound 5.

Mound 5. ESE (add 25.92) = 244.8 for Mound 6.

Mound 6. SE (add 64.08-degrees) = 308.88 for Mound 7.

Mound 7. SSE (add 25.92-degrees) = 334.8 for Mound 8.

Mound 8. SSW = 334.8-degrees.

Beyond the angle of the eighth Mound, it is 25.2-degrees further around to true north.

It should be noted that the small circular/horseshoe structure adjacent to the Octagon has a PHI square dissecting and defining its centre. Watch this part of the Octagon as we splice in further geometry.

Sorry about that little detour away from discussing the blue, green & red ribs of the Octagon's skeleton. The next square and circle combination to consider is the blue set.

Figure 15: The blue square and circle have radii which are the same as that of the Khafre Pyramid's base length, namely 708.75 feet. Half this value is the lunar year in days (354.375) and 1/24th of 708.75 is 29.53125, which is the duration of the lunar synodic month to an accuracy of about 57 seconds (excess) per month.If we multiply 708.75 X 9.6, then the resultant figure is the number used for describing the 18.613-year lunar nutation cycle, to an accuracy of about 5 days ... 6804-days. The true duration is 6798.36-days, but this number cannot be effectively dealt with in a mathematical progression, whereas 6804 can. Hence, the number 6804 was pressed into service by ancient astronomers and refinements on this number could be made periodically...probably after a lunar cycle or two. The Khafre Pyramid's base perimeter was 34020 inches and two circuits were 68040 inches. The accumulative value of 3 sides of the Great Pyramid was 2268 feet...1/3rd of 6804.

The blue circle is seen to brush the edges of the inner embankments, whereas the square, rotated 6.84-degrees, appears to relate to the small horseshoe circle, as well as brush the two additional, inner mound positions. We'll now add another square and rotate both to their correct positions.

Figure 16: The two Khafre dimension squares rotated to their correct positions in accordance with "Precession of the Equinoxes" coding. In actual fact, exactly 4 Khafre Pyramids would fit into one of these squares, which define the inner line of the Octagon's embankments.Although the Octagon is in a state of ruin, it still demonstrates its original design geometry more than adequately. At this juncture it might be reasonable to remind the reader that at no time, in this lead-up exercise of testing geometry over the site plan, has anything been introduced that did not have a proven pedigree back to Egypt and Great Britain.

Despite the structure's complexity and sophisticated mathematical layering, it remains easily decipherable because its builders did not deviate from established, traditional methodologies in their encryption of astronomical or geodetic codes.

We'll now look at the green square and circle:

Figure 17: The green square and circle showing the demarcation limits of the Octagon's 8 straight bank mounds, as well as the positions of the gateways. The dimension coding of this square and circle combination is of tremendous importance to 4 things, namely:

The Menkaure Pyramid, the most prominent geodetic (navigational) code (550), the "rounded" Megalithic Yard (32.4 inches) and coding found on the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge.

- The dimensions of the squares are 1485 X 1485 feet, which means each side value is 17820 inches. The Menkaure Pyramid, under its "11" series assignment, was 356.40 feet in length or 259.2 (Precessional value) fathoms (5.5 feet each originally) in perimeter (178.2 feet X 2). Each of the assignments applied to Menkaure Pyramid can be read, symbolically or literally, into these Octagon "square" dimensions, whether in standard or (symbolically) pure PHI values.
- The diameter of the square is 550 rounded Megalithic Yards of 32.4 inches, equating to 1485 feet. This use of 550 rounded MY codes a much-used geodetic relationship, wherein a linear distance fashioned in an "11" series of numbers, will convert fluidly to a sexagesimal circumference.

The foremost linear distance used (under the "11" series geodetic system) was 550, converting to 1728 on the circumference. This allowed navigators to plot linear distances in leagues, miles, furlongs, chains, rods/ perches, fathoms and links (or rounded MY expressions of the same) and, despite the distance covered or number of course changes of a ship at sea, always be able to keep track of degree angles from point of departure to destination.

Under the "11" system, which depicted the Earth as 24,750 miles in circumference, the diameter of this square or circle was 1/44000th part of the "ring of the Earth". At the same time, the circumference of the circle (using the geodetic rendition of PI @ 3.141818182 for perfect whole number conversion of diameter to circumference) was 1/14000th of the "ring of the Earth", under the sexagesimal geodetic system.

In consideration of that 2nd (sexagesimal) system or assignment, the "ring of the Earth" was 24741.81818 miles (8.1818182 miles shorter than represented by the "11" series geodetic system, in order for it to work fluidly to a "6" series of numbers. Mariners could use either system and achieve similarly excellent accuracy in worldwide navigation.

- The diameter of these 8 embankments designated by the green circle, is 550 rounded MY (1485 feet). This usage of an "11" based number in the diameter, duplicates exactly what was happening on the outer rim of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge. That diameter was 110 feet and intended to convey a circumference of 345.6 feet, whereas this circle calibration at the Octagon was derived from a diameter of 550 MY converting to a circumference of 1728 MY (1/2 of 3456 MY).

There's yet another way of looking at two of the concentric squares...before we move into the next section.

Figure 18: The 550 rounded MY square (green) has been rotated across the exterior positions of 4-entryways and 2 of its sides now lie on azimuth angles of 51.84-degrees, the same angle as the Great Pyramid and the whole Octagon site, relative to true north. The smaller square touches the position where the site's long centre line ends...to a tolerance of .4 of an inch.

The larger (red) square, shown blocking the remaining 4-entryways, is coded in a very special relationship to the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle. Its diameter is 1701 feet, and this number is 1/4th of 6804. Note how one side of the square brushes the edge of the small horseshoe circle sitting to the southern side of the Octagon. The number 1701 and derivatives of it are much used at Stonehenge.

A circle with a diameter of 1701 feet perfectly centres on the doorway of the small horseshoe circle embankment, situated to the south of the main site. It likewise tells us the intended code relating to the centre fulcrum of the small horseshoe circle. The centre of the horseshoe is intended to be 315 rounded MY (850.5 feet...81 reeds...1.35 stadia) from the centre of the octagonal embankment region. This position was further verified earlier by a PHI square, running down the crest of 4 embankments, with one side crossing this centre position of the small horseshoe circle.

It was also 560 rounded MY (1512 feet...144 reeds) from the centre of the circle embankment component of the Octagon complex.This gives rise to several more codes, which are:

1.The distance of 315 rounded MY is in deference to 630 (315 X 2). This number is tremendously important from Egypt to Great Britain and was the number used on the rim of the Brasen Sea edifice/ calculator of the Temple of Solomon (630 inches). The Great Pyramid was 63 X 12 feet long. The value of 630 feet became the Greek Stadia, although the Greeks appear to have let it "drift" about 10 inches by the time they were using it in their running events at Olympia. The young Greek civilisation gleaned its measurement systems and geometric knowledge off the Egyptians. The 315 value was often used as a rounded form of PI (3.1416) and occurs on the inner rim of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge (315 feet).

2.The 81 reed measurement that coincides with 630 rounded MY is simply an expression of rounded PHI & its 1/2 value. As we have seen at the Octagon, a selection of the measures are in rounded Megalithic Yards of 32.4 inches each. Another measurement used was the rounded PHI foot of 1.62 feet and 1/2 that value was .81 feet. These are simplified renditions of the true Megalithic yard, 32.360681 inches, as well as true PHI @ 1.6180339 or 1/2 PHI @ .80901695. As demonstrated, pure PHI relationships also occur in profusion at the Octagon.

3.The 560 rounded MY distance from the centre of the Octagon's circle embankment component is in deference to 56. The number 56 was much used in calculations of solar and lunar cycles or the Sabbatical calendar and there were 56 posts on the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge for this specific purpose. The perimeter value of the Great Pyramid was 54 X 56 feet.

4.The distance from the centre of the circle embankment to the centre of the small horseshoe circle is also 144 reeds, simultaneously to being 560 rounded MY or 1512 feet. The court altar of the Temple of Solomon was 1440 inches in perimeter value and Stonehenge's Aubrey Circle had a radius value of 144 feet.

5.The 1512 feet distance is the sum total of 2 sides of the Great Pyramid (756 feet X 2).

6.The angle between the centre of the circle embankment to the centre of the small horseshoe is 84-degrees...the Great Pyramid was 36 X 84 feet in perimeter length.

Figure 19: Or perhaps this was the orientation that the architects had in mind for the 1701 feet (red) diameter square, wherein it relates even better to 4 gateways or runs alongside (5.6 feet overshoot) of the Great Pyramid square.

THE AVENUESeveral codes appear achievable in the Avenue section, which relate to square footage values.

The entire site length from the SW rear of the altar to the outer extremity of the NE gateway was 2880 feet and various approaches could be employed to read the accumulative centre line increments, as long as the values added up to 2880 feet in the final total. For example, one could read the site, in feet, as:45 + 534.6 (Octagon's circle hub) + 534.6 (to Avenue) + 280.8 (Avenue length) + 742.5 (to octagonal section's hub) + 742.5 = 2880 feet.

Or one could read it as:

45 + 534.6 (Octagon's circle hub) + 1555.2 (octagonal section's hub) + 742.5 + 283.5 (Avenue length) = 2880 feet.

The formula is perfect in carrying length codes from the altar to the end of the site, with 2880 feet overall or 2835 feet (exact Khafre perimeter value) from the inner altar base tier.

The calculable Avenue length @ 280.8 doesn't really mean very much. The near numbers that were very significant to the ancient system are 280, 283.5 or 288.

It becomes obvious that for conspicuously coding the length of the Avenue, the designers are "playing both ends against the middle".The distance between centre hubs is clearly 576 rounded MY (1555.2 feet) inferring a 283.5 feet assignment for the Avenue.

As it turns out, the attributes of the Avenue's embankments show a capacity to elongate or widen defining measurements in order to extract a whole series of square footage codes.

Figure 20: The two rectangles shown were, quite probably, amongst the coded square footage values encrypted into the Avenue of the Octagon. The green rectangle is 283.5 feet X 100 feet, giving a square footage value of 2835 square feet and relating to the Khafre base perimeter value or to the lunar nutation cycle.

Another (not shown) would be 283.5 feet X 80 feet, giving 22680 square feet (3 sides of the Great Pyramid were 2268 feet...1/3rd of the lunar nutation cycle in days).

The magenta rectangle is 300 feet X 51.84 feet, giving a square footage value of 15552 feet (remember, the distance between hubs within the Octagon was 1555.2 feet) The value of 15552 is the result of 25920 (precession) divided by 1.666666 (3,4,5 triangulation).

Figure 21: Both the red and blue rectangles have lengths of 288 feet and relate (visually) very well to the overall length of the Avenue. The number 288 was, arguably, the most used foundation number of antiquity. The red inner rectangle is 90 feet wide making its square footage value 25920 (the number of years in the cycle of Precession).

**The blue rectangle is 100 feet wide, making the square footage value 28800, which is the exact square footage in an Egyptian or Pyramid acre. According to Herodotus, the square footage of each face of the Great Pyramid was 8 Egyptian acres.****With the Great Pyramid being 756 feet long at the base, 44 feet long on its top floor and 576 feet up its diagonal faces the total square footage per face is 230400, which is 28800 X 8. Given that its base is 756 X 756 feet, the Great Pyramid's base area and side Egyptian acre total combined is 51.845. Menkaure's is 11.52.****The Egyptian acre is related by ratio to the British acre (43560 square feet) in a ratio of 1: 1.5125. The Great Pyramid, under its "11" series assignment, was 1512.5 feet for two sides.**

Figure 22: Two more probable codes within the assigned square footage values of the Avenue. The outer cyan rectangle seems to nominate the extremity width of the Avenue embankments. This rectangle is 121.5 feet wide and 280 feet in length, giving a square footage value of 34020...the same as the inch perimeter of the Khafre Pyramid. The number 3402 will be recognisable as 1/2 of 6804...the number of days in the lunar nutation cycle.

The yellow rectangle is 300 feet X 82.5 feet (navigation), which gives a value of 24750 square feet. Under the "11" series navigation system the Earth was considered to be 24750 miles in circumference.In this above picture the rectangles have been jostled sideways of the magenta centre line to achieve the best visual appearance atop the Avenue embankments. In all other areas of the Octagon, the analysis locks onto stations that, in turn, lock geometrically to yet other stations...where there is no similar manipulation of features.

This section, devoted to the Avenue, allows the reader see what the ancient architects might have wished to code into this region of the site and what some of the plausible possibilities were.

THE GREAT PYRAMID GEOMETRY IN THE OCTAGON.With so many "Great Pyramid" codes appearing in the Octagon, it's realistic to assume that 2-dimensional geometric representations of the Great Pyramid will be found on the site...in a similar vein to what's found at Stonehenge.

Whereas the largest defining aspects of the Stonehenge earthworks show that the site was built to half ratio of the Great Pyramid, the Octagon's pyramid representations are in either "double" or 2.25 to 1 increases. Let's look at 3 areas where "Great Pyramid", 2-dimensional geometry is coded into the Octagon.

Figure 23: The blue "pyramid", laying with its apex on the "through site" centre line, seems representative of how the Great Pyramid might have been encoded into the Octagon...albeit in enlarged ratio. This configuration, with the apex aligned with the "Avenue" duplicates the manner in which the Great Pyramid was encoded at Stonehenge. The large yellow circle, cutting through the pyramid's top indicates where the "flat floor altar" of the Pyramid would sit.In the above representation of Great Pyramid coding, the ratio of expansion is 2.25 over and above the true dimensions of the Great Pyramid. The ancient people were very conversant with this ratio and used it a lot on their structures, mostly as a degree angle progression...11.25, 22.5, 45, 90, etc.

The converging lines of the pyramid, from the base to the apex, cut through the corners of the Avenue embankments adjoining the circle embankments. Also the strangely shaped, small mound in the western sector of the Octagon appears to help define a face line for the Great Pyramid geometry, by use of a customised, elongated appendage to the main mound. At the same time two other mounds help to establish the Pyramid's baseline, with the red circle, encompassing the base limits.

The yellow circle, which also cuts through the Avenue corner, represents where the "flat floor", atop the Great Pyramid, would be situated according to this ratio expansion of the Great Pyramid's dimensions. If this circle is sized to 453.6 feet radius X 2.25 (the ratio of expansion), then the yellow circle brushes the red circle, centred on the Octagon's circle embankment, to a tolerance of less than 5 inches.