Section 1, Section 2, Section 3, Section 4, Section 5, Section 6, Section 7, Section 8

From: Keri Hulme

Date: Thursday, 24 June 2004 4:07 a.m.

Subject: show me a wheel. show me iron, show me pottery, show me leatherworking,

in fact, show me *one* thing that cant be honestly traced to my Eastern Polynesian ancestors (o, I'm quite happy if something can be traced to my Western Melanesian ancestors.)
Just for a starter, only 70% OF MAORI HAVE A ROCKER JAW. It is a very high percentage for a human group, but NOT having a rocker jaw is not a diagnostic for a jawbone coming from a NON-Maori.Nor is being urukehu. Go have a look at people - just for instance - in the Bismarcks. Many blond kids there(and they dont have Euro mother/father/s.) That's too far from here? Nope, they followed the cuckoo too-

There is NOTHING - your stone works are a joke - real Celts built substantial rings and dolmens and chambers, not pathetic wee sighting heaps or rolled over tiny stones - EVER discovered here that says anyone except my Eastern Polynesian (possibly Western Melanesian at some stage) ancestors were here before my Celtic ancestors. I find your paranoia (re supposed Government cover-ups) and your racism sad. O, and nasty, offensive, vicious, and due to get its own comeback. Bye bye. Ka mutu tena.

Hi Keri,

The stone work on the New Zealand landscape is far from, "wee sighting pits or rolled over tiny stones", as you put it. Many of the individual, purpose placed obelisks are in the estimated range of ten or twelve tons...or a lot more.

Picture of a partial survey done on a high hill obelisk site east of Auckland City. The huge, purpose place obelisks of this elevated site are composed of smoothed, water-worn Greywacke. The components have been acquired from either the seashore or a river waterway and hauled, at great labour, to the distant, high hill location. There is only this singular arrangement of huge stones in the immediate region and the general terrain, all around for a considerable distance (possibly several miles), is devoid of any natural stone. The obelisk observatory/ temple, slightly down to the east on the hill summit, orientates onto the solar rise positions to the east, where a distant range acts as an "outer marker" for summer to winter solstice fixes, with the equinox centrally located due east. Although large trees now obscure much of the eastward view, sufficient can be seen through the hillside vegetation to determine how the site, in a general sense, works and why it was erected at that exact position. Sites like this are all over New Zealand and the greater Pacific region. We know of two more such sites in that east-of-Auckland, general vicinity, requiring surveying assessments. These are sites attributable to the people that your Maori oral traditions refer to as the "Stonebuilders" and describe as "kiri puwhero and urukehu"...reddish, light complexion in skin colour and with red, blond or brown hair and several varied hues of eye colour.

Samples of their platted hair used to be on display at Auckland War Memorial Museum and were commented about by Sir Peter Buck, who acknowledged the existence of his "white" pre-Maori ancestors.

Around Anzac day about 7-years ago, an ex-military friend of mine was visiting Mt Ngongotaha in Rotorua. He had a little interval down by the lake and met a very interesting old Maori ex-veteran who was wearing the distinctive Anzac poppy. The conversation with the old local elder moved through stages of discussing lake weed, to the recent Maori take-over of Mokoia Island, to the long-term history of the region. The old gentleman, Mr. Clark, then made an historical account about the former people with 'golden shining hair and ginger hair' who had lived throughout the region before Maori. He spoke of them having settlements on Mokoia Island, at the Green & Blue Lakes and on the mountain. He mentioned how his Arawa ancestors had warred with them and driven them out. He thought they might have gone to Wanganui. The old gentleman told of areas around the Rotorua Lakes where Maori are still reluctant to land their boats, due to the remnant stonework of the Patu-pai-arehe still in existence there. He said that one of the large settlements of these ancient people was at Artiamuri.

It's interesting that on Mokoia Island there is a stone statue, which is a South American potato god. There are also incised carvings in stone cliff faces there, including one of the Mediterranean/ South American Hei-Tikis.

The incised stonework of the ancient stonebuilders, very often incorporating the spiral pattern designs as found in places like New Grange, Ireland (circa 3000 BC), can be found around the shores of Lake Okatina, Rotorua, as well as many other areas like Raglan or Castle Hill in the South Island.

The potato-god statue at Mokoia Island in the centre of Lake Rotorua. This was associated with the "uru-kehu" and "kiri-puwhero" pre-Maori people, as described in Maori oral traditions. Potato god statuettes, fashioned in stone, were found throughout the Auckland Isthmus and are on display at Auckland War Memorial Museum.

The images to the right, in the above picture, are cup stones found at Koru PA in Taranaki (the stone PA), which also has a sophisticated standing stone circle (stones now lying on their sides) adjacent. Cup stones are a thousands-of-years-old cultural idiosyncrasy that's found from Russia-through Estonia to Ireland. To this very day, Irish farmers will place some grain or milk into ancient cup stones, found on their farms, as an offering to the fairies. This is done as the growing season commences to ensure good harvests, fortune and success.

The cut bowls shown in this picture are bullaun bowls, carved out of sold rock and found in Taranaki, New Zealand. Typical bullaun bowls, like these, were used anciently all over Continental Europe and Britain and are associated with the "wishing well" traditions of that region. When the Roman Christian Church found they could not eradicate "bullaun" usage amongst the "forcibly christianised" populations of Europe, the church adopted or absorbed use of the bowls as baptismal fonts. Many Europeans seeking convalescence from sickness for themselves or loved ones, to this day, make pilgrimages to the bullauns at the holy wells to say prayers and do ceremonial washing. The bowls are associated with the "blessing and cursing altars of Europe and especially Ireland. One old Irish witch is said to have caused invading English ships to come to grief and sink, due to her cursing incantations over a bullaun. New Zealanders should seek out these laboriously cut stone bowls (in boulders or rock outcrops) at trickle waterfalls around the country. (The above photo taken by Taranaki archaological researcher, Hip Fenton).

These ancient bullauns are now being found and recognised for what they truly are in New Zealand, along with cup stones. These are some of the many extant cultural idiosyncrasies which display an "all round" link to ancient Europe and the Mediterranean... from whence many pre-Maori inhabitants of New Zealand came.

The left hand picture shows huge remnant boulders of the main ancient surveying position for the many interrelating ground markers of the Waitapu Valley in Northland. This former pillar or compact surveying circle position sits on a now forested ridge. Typical British or Rennes Le Chateau type geometric relationships, occurring, over several square miles between large, purpose placed markers of the Waitapu Valley region, indicated that the main surveying position had to be exactly there. I calculated the exact co-ordinates in AutoCAD on the computer, then let a GPS unit lead me through low bush to the precise spot, which I had never visited before. The purpose built marker was exactly where it had to be and there was nothing remotely like it, nor any other substantial stonework, anywhere along the rest of the elongated ridge.

The middle picture shows another giant obelisk, which sits in a precise surveying relationship to the ridge pillar, a mile away to the north. This obelisk is smaller than the Greywacke ones east of Auckland, but it still approaches seven or eight tons or more.

The right hand picture shows a "hubstone" of one of several stone circles in the Waitapu Valley region. Some years ago, farmer, Michael Griffiths, who did not then know the significance of the stone, decided he'd like it for his home garden. He took a big Russian front end loader up to the hill summit to get it, but was unable to lift it. Thankfully, it's stayed put, which allows me to work out the ancient surveying geometry related to its precise positioning by the Patu-pai-arehe engineers.

This modern-day archaeological surveying work is done with tremendous care and there are no "flights of fancy". Overland positions are logged with GPS and all co-ordinates entered into the computer, such that distances and angles between the "very obvious" ancient surveying markers can be precisely determined within the exacting confines of AutoCAD. Any surveyor can duplicate this positional fixing work and will get the same amazing geometric relationships occurring over extended distances. Small area, individual sites are surveyed with a theodolite.

Here is a simple, but typical solar observatory arrangement to be found all across New Zealand in locations where the ancient Patu-paiarehe (Stonebuilders) lived. They erected full "standing stone circles", as well as solitary arrangements of large, often "sharksfin-shaped", stones like this "double stone" solar observatory, found in a Maungaturoto farm field. Although this marker arrangement is still being fully assessed, having only recently been identified, it is very conveniently placed to work with the eastern horizon of distant hills. The marker was purpose placed to gauge the rise positions of the sun from Summer solstice to Winter solstice. The precise spot was, undoubtedly, chosen such that the Summer solstice rise, or each of the other significant solar events, would occur on pinnacle peaks or other very recognisable landmarks, giving a precise calendar fix. Mt. Pukearinga provides the outer marker position for the Winter solstice sunrise. Mt. Pukekaroro further south will, undoubtedly, be the outer marker for yet another annual solar, milestone event, observable and calculable from this field observatory. The very large, heavy stones (several tons in weight) have been hauled to the location and purpose erected and there is no natural stone occurring on surrounding hills (dirt hills). An ancient Patu-paiarehe stone ramp leading down to the water's edge once existed at Maungaturoto, but the stone paving was pillaged for a cattle-yard.

The carved stone bowl in the right-hand picture is typical of ancient Patu-pai-arehe "mortar and pestle" sets. This one was found at Pahi on the Kaipara shore east of Tinepai and near the Arapoa River by an old gentleman who lived at Batley House. It might also have functioned as a bullaun.

A huge and laboriously carved, ancient concentric ring stone (bulls-eye design) sits on its side in the Waipoua Forest of Northland, New Zealand. This is the location of former "Beehive House" hovel dome villages, walls, altars, hearths, cupstones and many other expressions of the former Patu-paiarehe stoneworking culture. The centre picture shows carved ringstone depressions at Achnabreck in the Argyll region of Strathclyde, Scotland, with some cups carved into the concentric circle ridges. The Waipoua Forest, New Zealand, ringstone appears to have some cups in it also. The picture to the right shows another ancient bullaun artefact, located in Northland, New Zealand.

Because the concentric ring stone symbol was such an old cultural expression of Great Britain (thousands of years old), it was adopted as the insignia on WWI and WWII aircraft or amongst other services within the British military.

All the old maps of New Zealand, like this fragmented one of Taupo, invariably made reference to the pre-Maori people, as did the "pre-grievance industry" books. Maori elders recounted the stories openly, until recent years, when the corporate kaumatuas took over. The drafters of these (now) "politically incorrect" maps or authors of these (now) "unauthorised" books, full of unmentionables, religiously recorded what the Maori historians had told them. It is well attested in oral traditions that the Ngati Hotu, referred to on the old Taupo map above, were a "white" tribe, whose remnant survivors met their final demise in early colonial times.

Is this a picture of Ngati-Hotu women? The above photo comes from a 19th century postcard about Wairaki in the Taupo District. The twin sisters to each side of the very European central figure are predominently European themselves, but have some Maori lineage. The centre figure has her breast partially exposed, which would have been utterly against the principals of European Victorian women of the era. All are dressed in Maori attire. In early New Zealand colonial history there were still large pockets of "white Maori" or what was known as "waka blonds".

In my collection of "kiwi-ana" memorabilia I've got the "glue-on-cards" that kids of the 60's used to get in their Vita Brits cereal boxes to collect and swap. One collection was devoted to New Zealand history and repeatedly mentions the pre-Maori people. Girl guides and Brownie groups of the 60's used to use various Patu-pai-arehe names for brigades within the organisations, etc., etc.

Reverend Richard Taylor wrote in 1855: 'Besides gods the natives believed in the existence of other beings, who lived in communities, built pas, and were occupied with similar pursuits to those of men. These were called Patu-paiarehe. Their chief residences were on the tops of lofty hills, and they are said to have been the spiritual occupants of the country prior to Maori, and to retire as they advance. The Wanganui natives state, that when they first came to reside on the banks of the river, almost all the chief heights were occupied by the Patu-paiarehe, who gradually abandoned the river, and that even until a few generations ago, they had their favourite haunts there. These may be accounts of an aboriginal race mixed with fable; there are several things to warrant the idea that the Maori were not the first inhabitants of the land.
The Patu-paiarehe were only seen early in the morning, and are represented as being white, and clothed in white garments of the same form and texture of their own; in fact, they may be called the children of the mist. They are supposed to be of large size, and may be regarded as giants, although in some respects they resemble our fairies. They are seldom seen alone, but generally in large numbers; they are loud speakers and delight in playing the putorino (flute); they are said to nurse their children in their arms, the same as Europeans and not carry them in the Maori style, on the back or hip. Their faces are papatea, not tattooed, and in this respect also, they resemble Europeans. They hold long councils, and sing very loud; they often go and sit in cultivation's, which are completely filled with them, so as to be frequently mistaken for a war party; but they never hurt the ground…
The belief in the Patu-paiarehe is very general; many have affirmed to me that they have repeatedly met with them. Albinos are said to be their offspring, and they are accused of frequently surprising women in the bush.'
(see Articles from "Te Ika A Maui, NZ and its Inhabitants", by Rev Richard Taylor, written in 1855; facsimile reprint in 1974 A.H. & A.W. Reed.

I know where there are several large Patu-paiarehe earthen amphitheatres (where they spoke or sang loudly?), obviously for communal assemblies. I've seen these and visited them frequently and have also heard of several more, including one in the Waipoua Forest. A pig-hunter that I know stumbled onto one of the large Patu-paiarehe stone forts (same general style as Koru PA in New Plymouth, Taranaki) with the network of internal souterain tunnels. It's found way up in the high country of the Matemateaonga Ranges near Wanganui. I've also been told about the remains of many simple stacked-stone buildings up there (including a beehive house hovel dome village), which are located a couple of days walk into the deep bush and inhospitable terrain.

The wheel: It's quite correct to say that the Celts (circa 1000 BC until the time of Christ) used the wheel universally. The structures in New Zealand have the appearance or style of being much older than the Celtic era and I attribute them to the pre-Celtic people (those groups in Europe who later amalgamated to form the Celts). It is said that certain Muslim colonies of Africa did not use the wheel, although it was common practice to do so in their homeland countries. In this regard, I believe we have to look at several local problems or natural attributes.

Metal: A kaumatua has told me of ancient metal artefacts (bronze) being found in New Zealand. It's unlikely that any ferrous metal from the earlier era could have survived in our salt-laden sea air. If anything metallic was now found it, undoubtedly, would be attributed to the colonials.

Leatherwear: Apart from the remnants of leather boots reportedly seen on Spanish shipwreck skeletons buried in the sand dunes of the Poutu Peninsula (and sometimes uncovered when the dunes move), there's little hope of finding it in a country that had no large land-animals, other than dogs. Oral history descriptions of the Patu-pai-arehe indicates that they wove linen garments derived from flax. Their fishing nets seem to have been made of strong, woven flax fibre cords also.

Dogskin leather. The dog was, undoubtedly, introduced to New Zealand along with the Polynesian Rat, which has been in New Zealand for at least two milleniums or more. The wide distribution of these species throughout the Pacific is attributed to the Lapita People of circa 1900 BC to about 0 BC.

Cover ups: A colleague wrote away under the Official Information Act (Freedom of Information) to ask how many archaeological embargos are presently in place. The answer we received back from MP John Carter stipulated that there are 105. He wrote in part:

'Filekeepers may create sensitive files...if this is requested by the site recorder and there is a valid reason to do so. When considering this classification the filekeeper shall have regard to:... Local Maori concerns about the protection of the site.... The category should, however, be used sparingly.
All information held in the NZAA central File is official information for the purposes of the legislation. Any decision about release of sensitive information from its collections would have to balance the various statutory considerations, including the need to "protect information which is subject to an obligation of confidence".
My department, which was established in 1987, is not aware of any information embargoes, apart from those referred to above on the NZAA Central File that may have been in place prior to that. It is not a legitimate task for the department to follow through on your request to use the O.I.A. to obtain information from other sources."
Yours sincerely. Hon. Chris Carter MP'.



NZ Truth, Wednesday September 29, 1965 - page 13.

By John Wilson

A Tribe of Aztec type Maoris could be making a desperate bid to stop the opening of their one-time cave homes - from behind the grave.

The most recent attempt to open the caves was foiled when a big mud slide almost blocked off the entrance to one of the caves. But another attempt is soon to be made with the aid of bulldozers.
The pathetic history of this tribe of tall Maoris is one of the most heart-rending tales of Maori legend.
Maoris at remote but beautiful Port Waikato, 70 miles south of Auckland, believe the tribe has tried in the past to stop the opening-up of its one time home in the cliffs.
Three times, the locals believe, the dead tribe has thwarted moves to open the forbidding caves in which they lived - and died.
The Maoris at the little coastal town have known about the caves for centuries.
First move to open them came 80 years ago.
Well hidden and fairly inaccessible, they have, nevertheless, been visited by a few determined folk over the years - many of them vandals.
Then, not long ago two local men decided the caves were too good to go to waste. They decided to open them up. And that's when the slip occurred.
As if arranged by some giant constructor, a big slide of mud eased itself downhill almost sealing off the cave mouth.
Local Maoris believe it was the tapu of the Tall Ones at work again.
The existence of the Tall Ones has given New Zealand one of its most macabre and little-known legends.
For this "Lost Tribe" was virtually eaten to death.
A hard core of historians are convinced the tribe existed.

Their belief could add strong evidence to the widely-held belief that the Maoris or some segment of them originated in South America.
Unfortunately, written evidence of the tribe is scant.
Most was destroyed in one of several disastrous fires which ravaged the old Port Waikato mission station last century.
A resident there is believed to have compiled a vast dossier of information on the tribe. Much of this was gathered by word of mouth from old Maori living in the area at the time.
Other more tangible evidence was gathered by the man himself on several trips into the then virgin caves.
Among the finds were several pieces of pottery, I've been told. And as students of Maori history can tell you, the ancient Maori did not make pottery.

Then there was the appearance of the Lost Tribe.
They were much taller and thinner than the Maori. And they were not cannibals.
This, combined with a tribal history of Phinisis, a lung disease, probably led to their untimely extinction.
For the peaceable, cultured Tall Tribe were hunted and eaten out of existence by the local Maoris.
The Tall Tribe, with the markedly Aztec-type features, were believed to have settled originally in the Waikato before the Maori.
Then gradually, over a period of years, the Tall Ones were hunted further and further up the Waikato Valley.
They moved from cave to cave, trying to keep their shrinking tribe away from the Maori cooking ovens.
But each new hiding place was eventually discovered by the Maori hunters and the Tall Ones had to move on.
Sadly, their birth rates could not keep pace with Maoris' appetites.
But something else took its toll on them also.
They were prone to the lung disease, being forced to live almost entirely in dark; damp caves.
But even so the writing was on the wall for the ever-shrinking numbers of the Tall Tribe.
It was only a matter of time before the Maoris found their last retreat and ate them all.

Today, in the hilly country a few miles down the coast from the little township at the mouth of the Waikato River, their last homes still exist.
Three of the caves in which they must have staged their last frantic fight against annihilation have been discovered.
Others may also exist.
Two of the caves are big. Tameana, the most accessible, has an entrance about 30ft high. It is about 1½ miles deep and once probably went right through the hills to the sea. A fall of rock, however, has made it impossible to find out.
The other cave, Hineana, is about half a mile away and is neither as easy to find nor as big.
This is the cave that local Maoris steer clear of at night.

The name Hineana was given to the cave because of a peculiar moaning noise that comes from it on occasions.
The Maoris believe it comes from the spirits of the Tall Tribe lamenting for their dead.

Features of the caves are limestone formations and glow-worms.
Hineana has a giant white stalagmite standing alone about a half mile in from its mouth.
Glow-worms are reportedly as fine as at Waitomo.
Why hasn't anything been done about opening up the caves before then?

Three attempts have been made in the last 80 years. All have foundered on the powerful "tapu" that surrounds them.
Perhaps the idea of the two Waiuku men to run electric lights into the caves and clean them up is the best thing that can happen.
But there is one cave that will not be entered for a long time, if at all.
It is the secret burial cave that is reported to exist near the two bigger dwelling caves.
It is packed with the dead of the tribe.
Its entrance has long been sealed; And local Maori, unwilling to incur the wrath of the dead there, have reinforced the blockage.
They are delightfully vague about its exact whereabouts too.
In it is probably the only real proof of the Tall Tribe's existence.
For if they were in fact of Aztec origin they probably buried their dead with their belongings.
Some may even have been mummified.

Just now, no-one is too keen to find out.
Rumour of a powerful curse on the tomb of the Tall Ones keeps the locals - and everyone else - well at bay.

This week I stood where a bulldozer will soon roar through dense bush that has seen no inhabitants since the mystery tribe.
The dark, forbidding mouth of the cave took on an even more sinister appearance as I recalled the tale of the tribe who made its last stand inside.
Where once remnants of the pathetic band cowered and were massacred and eaten, families will picnic.
Through the bush where the tribe made its last desperate bid to avoid extinction visitors will soon click cameras at native pigeons
The only noise there since the screams of the last massacre victims died away have been the tinkling of tuis and the chattering of fantails.
They have been the bush's only inhabitants; the cave's only custodians for centuries.

It's interesting to note that journalist, John Wilson mentions "mummified remains" in his 1965 article. Australian scientist, George Elliot Smith removed mummies from a cave a little further down the coast beyond Raglan in 1931 and they ended up in Australia. We have a strong indication that these mummies, along with many Maori artefacts, were repatriated to New Zealand in about 1995 from Adelaide Museum. Sadly, they're still kept under wraps (pun intended) and the public are not privy to any forensic assessment concerning them. Respected New Zealand archaeologist/ surveyor, P.G. Hunt mentions the mummies acquired by Smith in a 1950's article devoted to shipwrecks and "stonework" archaeological remains on that coast.

A few months ago an evening caller to Ian Wishart's talk-back station mentioned ancient, very large clay pots that had been uncovered adjacent to the Waikato River. The individual sounded very well informed and had, apparently seen the artefacts himself. I could probably go back through my notes and identify the exact date of the call, which I remember jotting down.

Here's an article from The Northern Advocate (May 2004) devoted to the Fairy People.

A rare and very old book gives an account of a pre-Tasman French expedition (led by Sieur de Gonneville) to New Zealand as well, where one of New Zealand's inhabitants, an individual named Essemoric, returned with the ship's crew to France and later married into French aristocracy (the De Gonneville family). The French expedition departed New Zealand on July 3rd, 1504. The inhabitants of the land found by De Gonneville are, 'represented as boiling water and cooking food in earthern vessels'. They were also said to have used the bow and arrow (like the Lapita People). It's interesting to note that arrow heads made of chert were found on the Isthmus connecting the Mirimar Peninsula with the mainland in the vicinity of Wellington. I've been told of another ancient New Zealand arrowhead collection in the possession of a private individual, who scouts around a particular old PA to find them. (See Histoire Abrege de la Mer du Sud, by Abbe de la Borde).

So far, the tally of Roman or Egyptian coins found in New Zealand stands at about 3. One was found by a Mr. Tasker in Hawkes Bay (Roman) when boring a hole for a clothesline in a new subdivision; one was found in Northland (Egyptian) some years ago and another (Roman) was found in December last year (2003) beside the Taylor River in Marlborough. Last year's find was a coin dating to 7 BC. See:


You mention the blonde Melanesian children of the Bismarck Islands, and I admit to having been long intrigued by the incidence of blonde hair there. Although the early blondness is not universal and generally recedes in maturity, it is, nonetheless a fascinating genetic phenomena. I've read a number of explanations for this, including claims that there is an ancient Caucasoid element present that triggers the "blonde" occurrence. It's, perhaps, very significant that the Bismarck group is in the belt where Lapita Pottery is found in the largest quantities, more-so than other regions of Melanesia or Western Polynesia.

For quite some time I have tried to source a comprehensive physical anthropological report on the "Lapita People" skeletons, but there seems to be academic reluctance to broach the subject clearly and concisely. This evasive attitude has been commented on by several writers. What little anthropological evidence can be gleaned, shows no real relationship between the Lapita People and the much later Polynesians and this is, apparently, being reinforced as time goes on. Typical of this "withholding of evidence" relates to a very good find in 2002. The following is the first/ last newspaper report we received on the subject. The only variation in articles is found in the fact that the first press release said the skeleton was of a person 2 metres high (approaching 6' 7"):

'Mysterious skeletal remains of what appears to be a 3000-year-old giant have been unearthed on a South Pacific islands, but the bones' discovery has rattled local archaeologists who say poor treatment of the remains may have lost vital information.

Little is known about the highly unusual find, which includes a skull bearing strange holes drilled into its cheekbones, with authorities keen to keep the controversial discovery under wraps.

According to sources, the body, found at Lomaiviti, an island to the north of Suva, predates European exploration of the Pacific and it is believed the man was originally from the Solomon Islands.

The body was discovered last week by a Solomon Islander from the University of the South Pacific (USP), alongside examples of Lapita pottery & artifacts created by a group of Melanesians believed to have been the founders of modern Polynesia.

Measuring 1.9 metres (the earliest report of the find said 2 metres), the body is unusually large considering its age and origin. Pictures of its skull show the holed cheekbones, a feature unseen in previous discoveries, according to Fiji Museum sources.

The head of prehistory archaeology at the museum, Sepeti Matararaba, said the discovery of the body and pottery was "significant"....'

"Patrick Nunn, the supervisor of the archaeological team analysing the remains at USP would not comment and said on Sunday "we have decided to keep our find under wraps". 14 July 2002.

Our forensic scientists are (in the new, Pacific socio-political climate) denied access to human skeletons for study. Lisa Matisoo-Smith of the University of Auckland, New Zealand is obliged to use "Kiore Rat" remains in order to learn something about ancient Pacific peoples:

'Unable to research genetic variations in ancient people, she turned to the next best thing - rats. Matisoo-Smith and a colleague, J.H. Robins, examined the variations in mitochondrial DNA of ancient and modern samples of a rat species, Rattus exulans, from Bougainville, New Britain and other Polynesian islands. This species was used as food by the Lapita people in their outrigger canoes when they settled parts of Oceania roughly 3,000 years ago... There is much evidence the Lapita people took R. exulans along for food. Unlike European rats, Matisoo-Smith said, exulans do not swim and they dislike wet conditions. So it is unlikely that they accidentally reached the islands through infested ships.
As a food source, the rats don't require much effort. The Lapita would just have to release them on the islands they settled, and rats being rats, there would soon be plenty for eating.
That also left plenty of rat remains for analysis. Ancient human remains in the Pacific are rare and off-limits for study, Matisoo-Smith said. So there was no hope of comparing genetic variations in old and new human tissue'.

Dr. Kirch, in 1992, reviews four Lapita sites with the human remains, the best one on Watom Island, in the Bismarcks (p. 108). But Kirch, in spite of some fudging, admits that these Watom remains are not really a lot like the Polynesian type (see Patrick Vinton Kirch, The Lapita Peoples: Ancestors of the Oceanic World, Blackwell Publishers, 1997).

Associate Professor, Ian Lilley of the University of Queensland states: Interestingly, the fact that the creators of the imposing statues on far-flung Easter Island are descendants of the so-called "Lapita people" is hinted at by the startling resemblance between the monoliths and faces etched into the much earlier pottery.

Ancient Easter Island skeletons show the lowest incidence, in the entire Pacific Island region, of the "Rocker Jaw". There are also the well known oral traditions of the red headed/ white (kiri puwhero/ uru-kehu) people living there, who were ultimately annihilated by the latter influx of Polynesians.

As it turns out, production of Lapita pottery commenced abruptly in about 1900 BC. By about the time of Christ production of the ornately ornamented kind had long-since ceased and only some plainware pottery was still being made in Melanesia and Polynesia. After that an entirely new group, who did not produce pottery at all, took over the Islands.

Anita Smith of the University of New England in, An Archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory, 2002. - comments, comparing Lapita with plainware ceramics in Polynesia:

'Therefore plainware appears to be a simplification of the Lapita cultural complex caused by isolation.
Archaeological evidence indicates that plainware pottery ceases abruptly in Samoa around 0BC, being replaced by classic Polynesian cultural complex. This clearly indicates a change in ownership of the islands, from the waning Lapita settlers to a culture that lacked pottery making skills, who used fishhooks and tanged adzes.
(Peter Bellwood - The Archaeological Origins of the Polynesians pg. 58). Scientific studies have also found that the temper of Lapita pottery found on the Marquesas indicates that it was imported from Fiji.

Let's look at Lapita Pottery design symbolism and try to figure out whose pottery, contemporary to that era (circa 1900 BC), it most resembles. Nothing resembling prototypes of the Lapita pottery has been found in Taiwan or southern China, from whence Polynesians are supposed to have come:

Lapita pottery facial images are quite European. They show the pointed prominent chin and small mouth clench, the leptorrhine [long, narrow] nose, facial hair (including the moustache) or beards and thin lips. In the shard shown to the right the face, incorporating European features, is housed within an Egyptian Ankh design. For many millenniums prior to the epoch of the Lapita people and at the height of Lapita civilsation, Egypt was ruled by Nordic European (physiology) Pharaohs. The population of Egypt was still mostly European, but declining, as the years wore on (see anthropological reports on pre-Dynastic and Dynastic mummies of Egypt to about 1500 BC...several mummies of the Pharaoahs are on display at Cairo Museum). After many centuries of stave-off warfare the Egyptians were finally overwhelmed by the Nubians in about 800 B.C (the 24th and final dynasty of Egypt, with a Nubian Pharaoh).

The circle dot markings seen on the Lapita shards infer counts that, undoubtedly, relate to celestial cycle durations, calendar counts or navigational numbers. This "knop" type marking was used from ancient Israel to Ireland (see ancient Celtic crosses). The Lapita people were very adept sailors and navigators and during their era, spanning about 1500-2000 years, ranged over a wide area of Melanesia and Polynesia. They also had domesticated animals (pigs and dogs) or poultry and planted crops. They were largely responsible for the introduction of the Polynesian Rat to many far-flung locations. The Polynesian (Kiore) Rat has been in New Zealand for at least two milleniums. Perhaps the same is true of the Norway Rat as well, the introduction of which is blamed on Captain Cook. The native dog was, undoubtedly, introduced along with the Polynesian Rat, two or more milleniums ago.

Shards (a), (b) and (e) in the above sample clearly show the lozenge pattern that was very prominently displayed on "Beaker People" pottery of Britain. The Beaker people/ Wessex folk, who flourished in Britain from about 2500 BC erected standing stone circles and barrow mounds, much the same as are found throughout the Pacific, with its huge sampling of, mostly muted and played down, "stonework", including many labouriously built, cut-stone, stepped pyramids. The Lapita People, like the Beaker People, used bows and arrows and wove garments.

A string of seven carved "lozenges" and two "part-lozenges" is shown above the ancient "Winter Solstice window" opening at Newgrange in Ireland, which dates to about 3000 BC. Both the "late" Beaker people (Wessex folk) of England and the "early" Lapita people of the Pacific, lived quite contemporary to each other and used the "lozenge" pattern as their foremost cultural symbol.

Lozenge memory devices were very important to ancient astronomer/ priests and have been excavated from their barrow mound graves in Southern England. The Bush Barrow Lozenge device was located very close to Stonehenge and archaeologists theorise that the individual with whom it was buried was somehow affiliated with the happenings at Stonehenge. The Clandon Barrow Lozenge (left) is, similarly, mathematically sophisticated and was found not too far Southwest of the Bush Barrow Lozenge. To assess the circle and linear geometry by which the Beaker People (Wessex Culture) or their forebears fabricated both lozenge memory devices, view: (six sections).

These lozenge devices carried cyclic and navigational codes in their dimensions and angles, extractable by callipers, a 360-degree compass and rule, they were used as memory and teaching aids or to regulate all aspects of society, including quantity assaying in the marketplace. They were very essential teaching tools for masters involved in schooling initiates to the astronomical/ navigational arts. The never-to-be forgotten scientific parcel of numbers that they incorporated assurred the continued maintenance of civilisation and abundance.

Inasmuch as navigational codes were built into the lozenges, they, like the Egyptian Hypocephalus funerary amulet, were metamorphisised into symbolic or religious use as guidance devices for the afterlife. The lozenge illustrated or incised burial beakers, found in Beaker graves, inferred that correct navigation to the heavenly home had been spiritually calculated and set. The god Ptah, depicted on the Egyptian Hypocephalus, serves the same spiritual role to safely convey the newly dead to Orion, where Osirus dwells. Just as the priestly lozenges had played such a primary role in the mundane guidance of Beaker People society during mortality, so also did they in immortality. Lozenge symbolism was thus adorned on the funerary beakers.

It would appear that some of the Lapita pots are "grave goods", like the Beaker pots. The lozenge design of the Lapita People became one of the most important and venerated sacred symbols to be incorporated into Oceanic "tapa" cloths.

Keri, you seem intense in your desire to stifle any findings that might indicate an ancient Caucasoid or European presence in Oceania (and New Zealand, especially) prior to the Maori. Any such heretical suggestions you, rather vindictively, equate to "racism" and attempt to villify and muffle by slander or gloved threats. You are the revisionist, not me. You are the racist, not me. I have stayed with the reliable concepts of 40-years ago; it's you who has embraced the new plastic pseudo-history-religion, not me.

You can, very conveniently, hide behind your new-age fantasy-fictional writing and side-step the tangible facts that lie all around you on your home landscape or within the oral traditions recorded by your forebears. You pretend to be in touch with Maoritanga, but display all of the attributes of a shallow, superficial new-ager, appologising for having European blood running in your veins. But Europeans are people too and they, very definitely, went places and did things all over the globe in remote antiquity...including setting up ancient, long-term colonies in New Zealand and the greater Pacific. Maori culture is, largely, European culture, with almost all symbols and artefact pedigrees traceable back to Britain, Continental Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Branches or influences of Maori culture came via South America or other routes. Our "semi-flightless" native Pukeko (swamp-hen) has long been a native of Spain, Portugal and South America. Very old New Zealand Pohutakawa trees (600-years old) grow in La Coruna, Spain and were the subject of a recent Spanish radio broadcast... then of course there's the Egyptian-European-South American Hei-Tiki, etc., etc.

The 1902 edition of the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (pg. 693) showed these pictures of Mr. George Proudfoot Ewing, long-term resident and farmer at Whangarata, 38-miles south of Auckland City. Mr. Ewing had come to New Zealand from Scotland in 1881. The picture to the right shows Mr. Ewing measuring, what is described as,"a large Oak" tree at Whangarata or in the nearby district. It would appear strongly that this tree is not a native species of New Zealand, as the only native tree that we have described as an "Oak" is the Alectryon excelsus (Titoki), which is a medium sized tree that achieves a maximum height of only about 8-metres (26-27 feet).
The girth of the tree shown is very substantial and it would be impossible for a European Oak to have achieved such dimensions in the circa 100-year timeframe between the first trickle of European settlers arriving in New Zealand and Mr. Ewing measuring the big girth tree.

The Tuakau-Whangarata-Drury area was not developed into farms until around 1850 or later, so where did this large species "Oak" tree come from? In comparison to European Oaks of similar girth (approximately 5.5 feet, wide in the picture when scaled) this tree should have been between 200-300 years old by the year 1900, which means it would have taken root as early as 1600 to 1700 AD. Perhaps the rich volcanic soils of that South Auckland region and the mild winters might have accelerated its growth somewhat, but even under the best case scenario this tree must have predated European colonisation of New Zealand by a century or two. At Drury, South Auckland is the Runciman Oak, which is supposed to have been propagated from an acorn from the famous Cowthorpe Oak of England. Whatever became of Mr. Ewing's venerable old Oak tree?

The Runciman Oak of Drury, which sits on land that was once a part of the Runciman farm of 2000 acres. Pictured on the left is Captain James Runciman, who was a member of Colonel Nixon's Light Horse Cavalry throughout the Waikato Wars and commander of the Cambridge troop. The Runciman Oak tree trunk (shown on the right) has a diameter of 2 metres at half a meter above ground level. It's overall circumference (somewhat oval shaped) is about 4.7 to 5 metres (about 16.4 feet). The tree has been slowly dying since the motorway was put in beside it in around 1966. Sadly, the north-eastern side of the tree is now quite rotten and has lost substantial surface wood. Most of the large boughs have been lopped off in an attempt to save the tree.

"Officially", this Oak is reported to be only around 130-years old and grown from an acorn taken from the Cowthorpe Oak of England (brought to New Zealand by the Runciman's?).

An ancient form or development of the Hei-Tiki from Syria. There appears to be a link between this figurine and the owl-eye circle geometry that was used to create the Bush Barrow and Clandon Barrow Lozenges of the Beaker People of England. See the design geometry at:

Because the, now extinct, ancient European Patu-pai-arehe of New Zealand or Children of Poutini (the offspring of Tangaroa) throughout Oceania can no longer speak for themselves, I will, unashamedly, speak for them and applaud their great works... despite the fact it's not considered PC or in-vogue within the designer-engineered, social climate that you've been duped into embracing.

Best wishes


From: duane brooking <>

Sent: Sunday, 11 July 2004 11:40 a.m.

Subject: Does the term Neo-imperialism mean? CEASE AND DESIST THIS IS A WARNING


You seek to destroy our culture and replace it with your lies masquerading as the the truth. This is how it all got started in a place we used to call Yugoslavia, remember that? I've had enough and I'm not taking anymore of this abuse!


How wrong is it when the oppressor uses the oppressed to further their lust for mammon?


Try to understand the following to find out where this message is comming from, if you havent deleted it already!

Ko te iro ma!, Whakarongo! ki te koorero tika! Tukua mai ki ahau, Ko taku tupuna ko Tahu Potiki a aitia, Atu ko Ira a Tahu, Takiritia e Rakatehurumanu. Aitia atu ko Nukuroa ko Tahumari mahana Rakawahakura, Ko Rakaiwhakaata koia Tuhaitara. Ka moe ia Marukore koia Tamaraeroa, Ko Te Aohikuraki, no te ai hataretaretanga kia Rakaitekura! Koia te Hikutawatawa o Te Raki, to Ariki Tapu i Ngai Tahu e!

Which really means to the ignorant like you, "I prevail over my enemies, by the incantations which my ancestors and my father have handed down to me."


That is the only thing that will save you from your ignorance. You and Barry Brailsford are cut from the same whitey cloth that just cant accept that dirty savage niggers got here way before Pakeha, or any other culture for that matter.


(Duane then attaches a lengthy tirade written by Mikare Harawira, one of his role-models, laced-full of all the usual "grievance industry" Marxist jargon...I wonder if this is the same Harawira that beat the living crap out of a friend of mine on her first day of school over at Whenuapai?).

Duane, I had some reservations about posting your "maketu-Christian" email, as it's full of confusion. Nevertheless, I'll give you the benefit of the doubt, put your threats into the Feedback section and respond.

At this point in time, I'm not interested in limiting my research to the very late New Zealand era of "Maori history"... especially, the "grievance industry" version that you've embraced. I devote my time to studying pre-Maori history, based upon the very real and tangible structures that lie all over our New Zealand landscape. In the course of this study, I sometimes work with open-minded and progressive Maori elders and kuias, who provide me with good leads and insights about how our history unravelled. One of my research colleagues, who devotes her time moreso to "real" colonial history is Ngai-Tahu kuia, Jean Jackson. She writes:

"Professor Barry Fell was trained by my Grandmother, Elizabeth Hislop, in Maori Anthropology and he acknowledged my Mother's contributions long before she became the oldest Ngai Tahu for a while. She [Helen Stuart] died at 100½ in 2003."

Jean is righteously indignant about her Ngai Tahu tribe's falsification of New Zealand's colonial history and does all in her power to set the record straight, based upon indisputable, documented evidence. She and her mother have gone head-to-head with Tipene O'Reagan on this issue. She's now into about her sixth book on how our true documented history has been glossed over and falsified in order to leave New Zealanders wide open to grievance industry plunder. It'll come as a great surprise to you Duane, but not all Maori share your mindset about distorting colonial history to "turn a buck" or "censoring the more ancient, pre-Maori, New Zealand history". In fact, many oppose all such agendas vehemently. Foremost amongst those calling for full exposure are many Waitaha, from whom you claim descent.

Your racist jibes are ridiculous and disgusting. Don't put such words into my mouth, as this is solely your vomit, not mine!

As for me, "seeking to destroy your culture", as you put it, this is a lie. I will, however, continue to identify all symbols or cultural expressions that you inherited by conquest, which were formerly ours and were used by my European ancestors regionally or abroad for millennia's. Many things in your possession were derived directly from our Patu-paiarehe cousins and were carried by them from the Mediterranean or Europe, long before the Maori era.

Waitaha were conquered by Ngai Tahu and now there are at least three groups within Waitaha with differing points of view concerning how to chart the future. There are corporate-kaumatua trainees like yourself, who are fully in the Ngai Tahu camp and paying only token lip service to the very ancient oral traditions of Waitaha. There are those who don't know where their allegiances lie, whether it be toward the Ngai Tahu conquerors and their modern money grubbing agendas or to the older, pure traditions of Waitaha. Then there are those elders who want the very ancient histories of Waitaha to be made public. These are the same individuals who approached Barry Brailsford and asked him to record many hundreds of the old songs of Waitaha and place them into the public arena, such that they could be shared by all the world.

One of the large delegation of Waitaha and related, benevolent elders or kuias who participated in gathering together the "Songs" was Dame Whina Cooper, who wrote the following in the book, Song of Waitaha:

Panguru, Hokianga, Nth Auckland.

Te Mana! Te Ihi! Te Wehi! Te Tapu!

Kai Koutu e nga Iwi, Ki Oku Whanaunga i Aotearoa nei, Tena Koutu, Tena Koutu, Tena Koutu.

It is my prayer to my God above that we all learn to live as one people in Aotearoa. This Taonga that I have been involved with has kept us all very busy. I have travelled from Panguru to Wellington to Awhi, my Whanau who have worked on this very Tapu journey throughout the Country, doing the work that was set for them by my whanaunga in Te Waipounamu.

They have kept the tapu, the ihi and the wehi of the kaupapa and have finally finished the work, Kai ora koutou katoa. Me Awhi Koutou, i Kaupapa tuturu o nga matua tupuna, Kai manaaki e tatau ia tatou, Kai ora ai tatou katoa i roto i Te rangimarie.

You must all look after the teachings nga tohutohu, of your parents and grandparents, that is we must look after one another so that we might live in peace. That is my prayer and my wish for us, that we will learn to live together, the Maori and the Pakeha, living together as one nation.

Herea te tangata ki te whenua, bind the people to the land. Ki ora mai ano tatou. Ma te Atua tatou e manaaki e tia ki mo ake tonu atu.

Dame Whina Cooper, M.B.E., C.B.E., O.N.Z., J.P. Mother of the Nation of Aoteroa. Dame Of The British Commonwealth Of Nations.

Perhaps, instead of ignorantly railing against Barry Brailsford and, by consequence, your own learned elders, you should read the Introduction to the book, written by a kaumatua...a beautiful piece of text, which fully sets the stage and identifies the reason why the learned elders wished these truths to be made public.

You do Barry Brailsford a grave injustice with your uninformed slander, as he is a very gentle and accommodating scholar. He did not ask for the assignment of recording the 2000 Songs of Waitaha, of which only about 200 have, so far, been made available for posterity. It was an assignment that was laid on him by Waitaha elders. His goodwill and willingness to help has taxed his strength greatly and has, oftimes, had a tiresome, detrimental effect on his composure, health and resources. Perhaps he should have taken the easy road in his professional life, of only regurgitating the "politically-approved", grievance industry pseudo-history rubbish. That way he could have had a very cushy and comfortable existence, basking in the honours accorded by his, earlier awarded, M.B.E., and, remaining aloof from the ill conceived curses and threats that spew forth from Marxist-indoctrinated, grievance industry spawn like you.

Do you realise that Barry Brailsford did not make so much as a "brass razoo" out of publishing "Song of Waitaha"? All rights to the content of that inspired work are claimed by Waitaha-Maori factions, who take unto themselves all monies related to the sale of the book. As far as I know, Barry was left to pay all or most of the production debts by himself and remains about $50,000 in the hole, although the book is an international "best seller".

This elusive "mammon" that your refer to, in very Bible-speak terminology, is certainly never seen by any of the honest researchers subsisting at this level of the food-chain. It's quite apparent that there's no money, whatsoever, to be gained in telling the truth. Most of us have to take a vow of poverty and carry on as best we can, virtually "robbing Peter to pay Paul". I can say in all honesty that I know of no researchers in this country (other than "in the pocket" grievance industry historians/ archaeologists) who can do more than "break-even" in their quest to preserve, at least, some of the precious truths related to our past.

If, as you intimate, it is your "behind the scenes" desire to conjure up maketu against me by incantations, then I say to you:

I do not accept your curse, as I have not earned it and am undeserving of it. I work with honesty and integrity to find the true history of this land. I, therefore, return your curse to you, unfulfilled, and yet in need of the vengeance for which you conceived it. It is you, not I, who wishes to dabble with and conjure up evil from some dark netherworld, and you must now deal with anything you have tried to summons or unleash. No such evil was ever invoked by me, nor shall any abide with me for even an instance. As I will so mote it be.

As I said to you, I study the structures and works of people known by you as Patu-paiarehe, Turehu and many other regional Maori titles. In their earlier homelands, before coming here about 3000-B.C. and later, they were the pre-Celts, or that amalgamation of tribal groups that formed into the Celts by 1000 B.C. Your self-indulgent propaganda does not allow you to acknowledge that we have deeply profound and developed spiritual dimensions within our very ancient culture. The bullaun bowls found around this country were once a part of our blessing and cursing altars.

My gentle and overly accommodating European people have listened patiently to a lot of nonsense, endless whinging or have been subjected to far too much school-yard-bully, control-freak-type demands during the past thirty years. We are expected to cast aside, as dross, excellent scholarship and precious truths, handed down by reliable old historians and wharewaanaga elders, then embrace your new, self-agrandizing and self-enriching pseudo-history. Your "separatist" ilk attempts to write Europeans out of the Treaty of Waitangi and make us second class citizens or slaves, subservient to you. It might pay you to read the words of the Paramount Chiefs, who met together at the Kohimarama Conference in July, 1860 to advise and share their views with the New Zealand Governor, Gore Browne about The Treaty (see Investigate Magazine, August 2004 issue). He Iwi Tahi Tatou!

For thirty years your Marxist-inspired activists and money-grubbing corporate kaumatuas, working in closely with "big-business", have snapped at our heels like annoying scavenger-dogs, wounding us and insulting our culture, so as to be left free to plunder "all the people of New Zealand", altogether.

...'but I fear, all you have done is awakened a sleeping giant with a terrible resolve'.


From: Faleafa Toetau

Date: Friday, 30 July 2004 11:59 p.m.

Subject: Response to site.

I am a Samoan who has and always will be interested in world history, especially ancient history. I would like to congratulate you on moving away from established views on New Zealand history, to investigate evidence, which I agree cannot be ignored. After all I believe that mankind is much more ancient than we can possibly fathom. It is possible that cultures, which were separated in recent history, could have cross paths with one another in ancient times.

As a Polynesian, I could understand the Maori view and why they might disagree, but I've noticed that the 'moko' (facial tatoo) design is strikingly similar to Celtic design, and the way that they built their 'marae', is also similar to how Celtic houses looked, but almost nothing like Polynesian houses.

The fact that the sweet potato came from America is well known, but what isn't is that the name of never changed. The Indians called it 'cumera', the Polynesians called it 'kumala' or 'kumara' in Maori.

To the owners of this site I say good on you and keep it up. I doubt its possible to know everything about the past, but think the truth for better or worse is always the best way to go.

Hi Faleafa,

Many thanks for your encouragement to keep searching.

Samoan friends have told me that the Island of Savaii in the Samoan group is considered to be the birthplace of eight Pacific nations, including the New Zealand Maori. My friends tell me that the mystical homeland of "Hawaiki", from whence the Polynesian Maori claim to have come, is actually "Savaii". Were the Maori pronunciations able to revert back to the original language sounds of many generations ago, I'm told, "Hawaiki" would become "Savaii".

I am very interested in the design and structural content of the Pulemelei Mound on Savaii and to learn that it is a stone walled structure overlaying a carved earthen mound. It is said to have a souterrain tunnel system within it, which is now mostly blocked off and inaccessible, but yet breezes are emitted from within the structure through small holes and fissures. This seems to indicate that larger openings still exist in the region, sufficient for the prevailing winds to pressurise the internal tunnels of the mound.

In many respects, the Pulemelei mound is very much like our stone PAs of New Zealand, where hillocks are carved with steep walls and, sometimes overlaid by stone. One very good surviving example of this kind of stone construction is Koru PA of Taranaki, with its souterrain tunnel system and very sophisticated "standing stone circle" sitting at the side of it.

What I find most intriguing about the Pulemelei Mound is the reports of many "cairn" marker structures scattered around the mound and further cairns and markers atop the mound platform. This clearly indicates, to me, that at Pulemelei there is a surveying and land-mapping function in the layout of structures and that you have, there, the same type of land marker coding as occurs in special locations here in New Zealand.

I have been told that an archaeological team from the Thor Heyerdahl Museum has been identifying then logging positions of stone markers on and around the mound structure. I feel very confident that, if satellite navigational fixes could be taken on all the purpose placed marker positions there, and the dimensions of the mound accurately measured, then the standard mathematical parcel of coded navigational and cyclic numbers, found encoded into landscapes from Egypt to Oceania, would be revealed at Pulemelei.

My friends tell me that clues related to this special ancient knowledge can still be found in the higher Matai and Royal languages of Samoa. It would seem that parts of the knowledge have been preserved and passed down, but that these (now fragmented?) principles are known only to an elite few. You'll find, however, that the complete knowledge still sleeps in the positions of those cairns and in the angles or distances related to where the cairns sit away from the resolving positions on the mound plateau. My guess is that the mound itself will have been placed in that exact position to relate to outlying natural geological features in the distance...even perhaps an outlying Island...and how that outlying position relates to an observable solstice or equinox sunrise or sunset. It'll be something along those lines.

This image was digitally photographed from a rare book about the life of missionary, John Williams, who arrived in the Samoan group in 1831 with 8 Tahitian missionaries. The caption on the above picture read: One of the maraes, vast stone platforms used for ancient Polynesian rites.

It's really a pity that our modern regional historians will not deal with these many Pacific structures, which are so similar to what one finds in South America... or across the Atlantic in the Canary Islands... then further east to Egypt and Persia, etc. Our establishment historians and archaeologists are so intent in trying to "prop up" their very incomplete, exclusive and mostly unsustainable, isolationist hypotheses that it becomes taboo for them to mention the impressive works of the very ancient "Stonebuilders", who once ranged throughout Oceania.

Concerning New Zealand, you are in agreement with Thor Heyerdahl, who wrote:

'Irrespective of how and when the Maori began to cover their carvings with spirals, the habit is absent in their Polynesian homeland and may therefore very well be so in their still earlier fatherland further away. There is, indeed, no such curvilinear surface design on the wood carvings of the Society Islands and these include the very tall ancestral posts which were erected in ancient Tahiti' (see American Indians in the Pacific, pg. 116).

Somewhere around here I've got a picture of a South American Indian with a very Maori looking moko on his face. I'll seek it out and put it with this letter later.

Best wishes, Martin.