BRONZE AGE WRIST GUARDS
Over the last few centuries of British archaeology making its transition from a pastime or hobby enjoyed by rich antiquarians to a fullyfledged science, there have been many exhumations of anciently deceased persons. Where burials of people of obvious importance have been encountered there are often rich assortments of accompanying grave goods, including objects fabricated of gold, copper daggers, or other prestigious items not found in the graves of lesser mortals. One particular category of gravegoods associated primarily with dignitaries or persons of highoffice is something called "wristguards" or "bracers".
An assortment of various wristguards found in British graves are seen below and categorised as to type.
Representative range of bracer types and lithologies studied, from left to right: (a) Calne, Wiltshire (C1); (b) Driffield,Yorkshire (C1); (c) Hemp Knoll, Wiltshire (C1); (d) Barnack, Cambridgeshire (C3); (e) Sittingbourne, Kent (B1); (f ) Sturry, Kent (B1); (g) Sewell, Bedfordshire (B2); (h) Brandon, Suffolk (B3); (i) Mildenhall, Cambridgeshire (B2). Picture from: Beaker Age Bracers in England: Sources, Function and Use, Antiquity Journal 80, p 530543, 2006.
Categories:
Wristguard typologies. A: The typology of Sangmeister (1974) distinguishes between broad (A–C) & narrow forms (D–G). B: The typology of Atkinson (Clarke 1970) distinguishes between tapered, straight, & waisted forms. C: Descriptive typology proposed by the authors based on Smith (2006, 1). Distinguishes three outline forms & four possible crosssections. The description is a combination of the number of holes, the outline, & the crosssection.
SO, WHAT WAS THE FUNCTION OF WRISTGUARDS?
This would almost seem to be a rhetorical question, as the very name implies an item to guard the wrist from injury of some kind. Indeed, this title was given to these objects only because it was first thought that they were fabricated to protect bowmen from the injurious impact of a returning bowstring against the exposed flesh of the inner wrist. Bowmen, ancient and modern, in all societies use wrist guards for this protective purpose, as the impact from highly tensioned bow strings can be severe and very painful.
However, there's a problem, as it would seem from the accrued archaeological evidence that these items were not used as wristguards by their ancient wearers or would have functioned very poorly in that capacity. Here are a few quotes from Jonathon Smith's comprehensive article, Early Bronze Age Stone WristGuards in Britain: archer's bracer or social symbol? (2006):
Similarly, experts, Harry Fokkens, Yvonne Achterkamp and Makel Kuijpers make many of the same observations in their article, Bracers or Bracelets? About the Functionality and Meaning of Bell Beaker Wristguards, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 74, 2008, pp. 109140.
Fokkens et al provide many drawings, showing the varied positions of wristguards found on or placed around skeletons during Bronze Age burials and, like other researchers, conclude that these artefacts served some yet unknown purpose unassociated with archery.
In their articles, both Smith and Fokkens omit any real reference to the measurements or weights of the wristguards, as if it is an irrelevant point unworthy of pursuit. Fokkens does, however, provide a link from his website to another dynamic article and also to a database, both of which contain this kind of information.
THE ANITQUITY JOURNAL ARTICLE
In 2006 Antiquity Magazine ran an article called Beaker Age Bracers in England: Sources, Function and Use, by Ann Woodward, John Hunter, Rob Ixer, Fiona Roe, Philip J. Potts, Peter C. Webb, John S. Woodward & Michael C. Jones. In this article the length & breadth measurements & weights of 26 wristguards (bracers) was also included. Here are some excerpts from that study:
As mentioned, the primary difference in approach by Woodward et al was to allow for a new line of discussion, based upon their supply of measurements and weights for 26 wristguards. Although weights in grams are refined to two decimal places, the length and breadth measurements are given only to the nearest millimeter. This is marginally sufficient to consider the possibility of measurement & weight codes having been built into each carefully fabricated wristguard artefact.
Our experts seem to be in unison that the wristguards were impractical as items associated with archery. Moreover, the placement positions in and around Beaker burial skeletons would indicate that they were oftimes located on positions of the body where no such function was possible. Several were too large to wear on the wrist or too small to have covered the area exposed to severe lashing effects of a taught, returning bowstring. Some bracers had only two holes available for tying to the wrist and could not be attached in any practical or useful way. Some had rivets or other protuberances of precious metal that would either catch, fray or break the bow string or dislodge the precious metal inserts... so these stone wristguards must have been fabricated for an altogether different purpose ... but what could that be?
THE WEIGHTY RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICE
The consensus opinion amongst our scholars seems to be that the "bracer" items were symbols of office or status and that the bearer or wearer of one held a position of prominence, as a leader or dignitary within his ancient society. We now know that Bronze Age sages were in possession of sophisticated mathematical sciences, which described principles of navigation, cyclic astronomy and the lunisolar calendar with tremendous precision. We also know that they had precise Weights, Measures & Volumes standards, all based upon factorable and highly calculable numbers, fluidly manipulated within mathematical progressions.
For a king or provincial governor/ priest, trying to keep peace within regional society, few things were more threatening to harmony than "short measures" being meted out in the market place. This problem has required eternal vigilance, worldwide, since time immemorial. The responsibility to know what constitutes a correct measure in weight, volume or length, as well as the enforced maintenance of precise standards, was always a primary function of localised leadership.
In the monarchies of ancient Ireland, Scotland and, more recently, England, coronations occurred while the new king or queen either stood or sat upon The Stone of Scone, also known as The Stone of Destiny.
This 1875 photo from the Cornell University collection shows The Stone of Scone housed within the coronation chair. Prior to the stone's theft (or repatriation) by Scottish Nationalists in 1950 it had been carefully examined by a geologist (Lowerley) who determined that its composition was made up of the following: "A sandy granular stone; a sort of sienite, chiefly of quartz; with light debris of sienite, chiefly of quartz, with light and reddish brown felspar, and also light and dark mica, with probably some dark green hornblende intermixed; some fragments of a reddish grey clay slate, or shist, are likewise included in its composition ... One of the most significant facts about the Coronation Stone is that no similar rock formation exists in the British Isles"(See: The Story of Ireland, 1905, republished in Destiny Magazine, May, 1946, by Prof. C A L Totten  Science, Yale University).
The texture of the stone categorises it as a "Porphyry", much prized in ancient times for temple columns and sacred vessels, etc. Large quantities of Porphyry stone were quarried in Egypt by the Romans and shipped to holy shrines throughout their empire. Irish legends state that The Stone of Destiny was brought to Ireland from the Middle East in the 6th Century BC. Thereafter, for about 2500years, Irish then Scottish then English monarchs received their coronations upon the stone.
The traditionally given length, breadth & depth measurements of The Stone of Scone seem to be rounded to 26" X 16^{3}/4ths" X 10^{1}/2". The weight given for the stone presently housed in the coronation chair is 3 hundredweight (336 lbs), although conjecture remains that the stone returned from Scotland to England in 1951 is over a hundredweight lighter than the original taken in 1950. It is also said to be carved from a reddish sandstone of a type found near Scone, Scotland and altogether different in composition to the stone examined by 19th century  early 20th century geologists.
Regardless of the controversies now surrounding the stone, for about 2500years monarchs took their oaths of office upon it, as if something sacred lurked within its bounds or dimensions
The top surface of the stone, (where the royal derrière situates itself) could be interpreted to be (to close tolerances) 25.92" X 16.8".
Under such circumstances of interpretation the length of the stone @ 25.92" would be in homage to the 25920year period of the Precession of the Equinoxes, where the Sun spends 2160years in each house of the zodiac during the precessional cycle. Perhaps the encoding of this very long enduring cycle reflected the hope of, "Long Live The King" or that the very welcome royal presence would illuminate each house of the realm during the long reign of the monarch.
And yet the scientific principles encoded into the stone, under this reading of its dimensions, would go much deeper. For example, using full number, nondecimalised values to represent these length and breadth measurements @ 2592 X 168 = 435456. It just so happens that under the Great Pyramid's geodetic system, where two circumnavigations of the edifice equates to 6048' for 1minute of equatorial arc, the full equatorial circumference of the Earth is 130636800' (435456 X 300). The sum of 435456' would, therefore, equate to 72minutes of equatorial arc and the stone would, thereby, act in the capacity of a mnemonic device for the preservation of this highly important scientific information related to navigation and positional plotting at sea.
From remote antiquity, the above system of navigation was used, based upon the "6&7" family of numbers and mathematical progressions, with a mile of 5250' (which, at a late epoch, became known as the Greek mile). Under this system the world was (for navigational purposes) considered to be 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 miles of 5250' or 130636800'. Note: The stone's depth is traditionally rendered 10.5" or 5.25" X 2.
The 435456 value above comes tantilising close to the numerical lineup that describes an English acre (660' X 66') or a furlong multiplied by a chain = 43560 sq'.
In yet another mnemonic reading of the length & breadth one could marginally (symbolically) adjust the reading upwards to 26.25" (navigation using the 5250' mile & also coding related to the lunar cycles) X 17.01" (the lunar nutation cycle endures for 6804days of which 1701days equals a quarter period). Likewise, the length could also be (symbolically) read as 26.4" (relating to the mile of 5280' or 2640' X 2). Also the depth of the stone (10.5") could be read as 10.56" and again relate to the "11" series mile of 5280' (note: 10560' = 2miles).
The point is, that such readings or usages would not be out of character with the longstanding, traditional British "modus operandi", extending back to the Bronze Age.
A Celtic Torque, taken from the grave of the Princess of Vix, (circa 5600 BC). It weighs (officially) 480 grams, which converts fluidly to 16.875 ounces (16^{7}/8ths). Its carefully fabricated and coded weight is, therefore, in direct ratio to both the Greek Commercial Talent or Tridrachm (Beqa) gold standard Talent (originally derived from the early Egyptians) and represents ^{1}/80th of the Talent weight in both standards. The Torque depicts the rising and setting orb of either the Sun or Moon and shows a "Greek Pegasus" flying horse ascending upwards on the orb from the East (right) and downwards on the orb to the West (left). In terms of the grain weights inherent within the artefact or Greek Commercial & Tridrachm standards, the numbers produced are lunar and 16.875days (504hours) would be ^{1}/21stpart of the lunar year of 354.375days duration.
Isabel Hill Elder, author of the book: Celt, Druid & Culdee, 1938, offers a quote concerning other of these ancient [coded] torques on pg. 32 of her book:
'A torque or gold collar was worn by wealthy inhabitants, and also as a distinguishing sign of eminence. Specimens of these torques have been discovered from time to time, and may be seen in various museums, notably Dublin National Museum, and in private collections. A very good example, in the possession of the Duke of Westminster and deposited at Eaton Hall, was found at Bryn Sion, Caerwys Mill: it is 32 inches long and weighs 24 ounces' (See: Gibson's "Camden," p. 653. Hoare, "Ancient Wilts," Vol. I, p. 202.
Firstly, the given measurement of 32 standard British inches is significant in and of itself. The weight of the Duke of Westminster's torque would be 10500 grains. Note: the ancient Hebrew Reed was 10.5' and the thickness of the Stone of Scone is 10.5". A mathematical progression, based upon 105 will generate a string of highly significant navigational and lunar cycle values.
THE LOSS OF OUR PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE
'A great deal of history socalled has come down to us
from Latin sources, whose one object was, from the very first, to make us believe
that we owe all to Rome, when, in fact, Rome owes a great deal to us; so much
error has been taught in our schools concerning the ancient Britons that it
is difficult for the average student to realise that the British before the
arrival of Julius Caesar were, in all probability, among the most highly educated
people on the earth at that time, and as regards scientific research surpassed
both the Greeks and Romans — a fact testified to by the Greek and Roman
writers themselves (Strabo I, iv, p.197).
In all the solid essentials of humanity our British ancestors compare to great
advantage with the best eras of Greece and Rome. Lumisden has shown in his treatise
on the "Antiquities of Rome" that many of
the fine actions attributed by Roman historians to their own ancestors are mere
copies from the early history of Greece (Antiq. of Rome, pp.
6,7,8).
It is unfortunate for posterity that the histories from which modem
historians have drawn their information were written by hostile strangers'
(See: Celt, Druid & Culdee, pp. 1819).
One could add to the above that "Greek Culture" was established by the Pelasgians ('Sea Peoples'). "The name 'Achaeans' means 'Watermen' or 'Sea People' (the Gothic 'acha' for 'water' or 'stream' is cognate with Latin 'aqua'). The fact that the PelasgiansAchaeans founded Athens (circa 1100 BC) was stated by Greek historian Herodotus (5th century BC) and compelling evidence shows that the Pelasgians were CeltsBritons from the Atlantic seaboard countries and not from the Mediterranean. See: http://www.troyinengland.co.uk/trojanwar/trojanwar.htm
The educational system adopted by the Druids is traced to about 1800 B.C., when Hu Gadarn, or Hu the Mighty, led the first colony of Cymri into Britain from Defrobane, where Constantinople now stands. In the justly celebrated Welsh Triads Hu Gadarn is said to have mnemonically systematised the wisdom of the ancestors of those people whom he led west from the summerland ... Concerning the educational facilities available to the socalled barbarous people of these islands, there were at the time of the Roman invasion forty Druidic centres of learning, which were also the capitals of the forty tribes; of these forty known centres nine have entirely disappeared These forty colleges were each presided over by a Chief Druid. There were also in Britain three Archdruids, whose seats were at London, York and CaerlleononUsk ... Not only the supreme king, but every petty king had his Druid and Bard attached to his court. This Druidic chaplain had charge of the education of the youthful members of the house, but was also allowed to have other pupils. He taught and lectured when possible on all appropriate occasions, often outofdoors, and when traveling through the territory of his chief or from one territory to another his pupils accompanied him, still receiving instruction ... Degrees were conferred after three, six and nine years training. The highest degree, that of Pencerdd or Athro (Doctor of Learning), was conferred after nine years. All degrees were given by the king or in his presence, or by his licence before a deputy, at the end of every three years (See: Celt, Druid & Culdee, pp. 4853).
Isabel Hill Elder, quoting ancient historians and witnesses of events contemporary to their times, provides us with an overview of society in preRoman Britain. Although the Druids, as such, were quite a late epoch body of scholars and tutors, they had an unbroken pedigree of forebears, involved in much the same kind of teaching and leadership activity, extending back to when Stonehenge was built (3000 BC) or even long before that time.
This is consistent with what Julius Caesar said concerning the great schools of Britain run by the Druids of his time.
'They do not think it proper to commit these utterances to writing, although in all other matters and in their public and private accounts they make use of Greek characters. I believe that they have adopted the practice for two reasons that they do not wish the rule to become common property, nor those who learn the rule to rely on writing and so neglect the cultivation of memory; and, in fact, it does usually happen that the assistance of writing tends to relax the diligence of the student and the action of memory...They also lecture on the stars in their motion, the magnitude of the Earth and its divisions, on natural history, on the power and government of God; and instruct the youth in these subjects' (see De Ballo Gallico, VII, 15, 16.).
The late era Druidic schools that Julius Caesar commented about, undoubtedly, had a pedigree back to similar schools maintained during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. British historian, Isabel Hill Elder, commenting on the Druidic schools, writes:
'The students at these colleges numbered at times sixty thousand of the youth and young nobility of Britain and Gaul. Caesar comments on the fact that the Gauls sent their youth to Britain to be educated...It required twenty years to master the complete circle of Druidic knowledge. Natural philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, geometry, medicine, jurisprudence, poetry and oratory were all proposed and taughtnatural philosophy and astronomy with severe exactitude' (Elder refers to Strabo I IV, page 197. Caesars Comm. Lib V. Sueotonius, V Calegula. E. Campion, Accounts of Ireland, pg. 18.).
We can conclude that from the Bronze Age or before, there existed ordered hierarchies of leadership, composed of a reigning monarch or monarchs, lesser kings, tribal or clan chiefs and their educated advisors, preoccupied with maintaining functioning society and order within the realm.
Given that ancient monarchs of Ireland, Scotland and (more recently) England took an oath of office while standing or sitting upon, what is recognisable as a codebearing stone containing scientific information by way of dimensions and weight, it would seem to follow that subordinate leaders would have been delegated the task of remembering and preserving the standards.
Given that the wristguards or "bracers" are now considered to be BronzeAge symbols of office, wholly associated with individuals of high standing in their communities, let's now explore possible tutorials or encoded information built into some of these small stone artefacts.
Here is the readout of measurement & weight results for 26 bracers, recorded by Ann Woodward and her team.
ID 
site
name 
county 
museum 
type 
no
holes 
colour 
length 
max
width 
min
width 
max
thickness 
max
hole diam 
weight 
%
present 
breaks 
break
age 
wear 
back
striations 
front
striations 
main
reference 
1 
Sturry (Milners Gravel Pit) 

BM 
B1 
2 
pale
green 
153 
36 
33 
no
record 
no
record 
64.54 
85 
C;B 
ancient 
slight 
L 
nil 
Jessup
1933 
2 
Hemp
Knoll 
Wilts 
BM 
C1 
4 
mid
green 
118 
48 
43 
7 
7 
79.61 
95 
C;C;C 
ancient 
slight 
L 
nil 
Robertson
Mackay 1980 
3 
Barnack 
Cambs 
BM 
B3 
18 
dark
green 
105 
71 
66 
4 
4 
81.52 
100 
C;in grave 
ancient 
fresh 
Ddense 
Lsome 
Kinnes 1985 
4 
Mildenhall 
Cambs 
BM 
B2 
4 
greybrown 
102 
58 
54 
8 
7 
88.93 
98 
C 
ancient 
slight 
nil 
one
end 
unpublished 
5 
Sittingbourne 

BM 
B3 
2 
dark
blue/green 
96 
36 
36 
7 
5 
43.75 
99 
C 
ancient 
fresh 
flaws 
nil 
Kinnes 1985 
6 
Brandon
Fields 

BM 
B2 
6 
pale
blue/grey 
115 
36 
34 
5 
7 
38.77 
96 
C;ch 
ancient 
fresh 
T 
T 
Clarke
1970, fig 429 
7 
Sewell
(Totternhoe) 
Beds 
BM 
B2 
4 
pale
blue/green/grey 
101 
43 
43 
4 
3 
45.03 
100 


fresh 
flaw;D 
someL 
Kinnes 1985 
8 
Driffield (Kelleythorpe) 

BM 
C1 
4 
dark
green 
127 
33 
28 
6 
5 
64.05 
100 


fresh 
L;someD 
edgesL 
Kinnes 1985 
9 
Aldbourne 
Wilts 
BM 
B2 
2,
of 4 
pale
bluegrey 
59 
33 
33 
6 
4 
22.85 
c.50;frag 
half
gone 
ancient 
slight 
nil 
D 
Kinnes and Longworth 1985 
10 
Calne 
Wilts 
BM 
C1 
4 
greygreen 
123 
46 
40 
6 
4 
62 
99 
Cch 
?ancient 
fresh 
D;L 
nil 
unpublished 
11 


BM 
A1 
2 
dark
red 
94 
25 
24 
9 
6 
47.96 
100 


indet 
T;someLD 
nil 
unpublished 
12 
probably


BM 
A1 
2 
dark
red 
94 
18 
13 
6 
7 
18.83 
99 
Cch 
ancient 
indet 
D 
Dslight 
Harbison 1976, no 61 
13 
Roundway 
Wilts 
Devizes 
B2 
4 
pale
green/grey 
112 
33 
32 
5 
6 
35.85 
100 


fresh 
L 
flaws;L 
Annable and Simpson 1964, no 61 
14 
Tytherington (or Corton) 
Wilts 
Devizes 
B2 
12 
pale
green/grey 
105 
48 
47 
3 
4 
37.18 
90 
E;chM 
ancient 
worn 
L 

Annable and Simpson 1964, no 116 
15 
Sutton
Veny 
Wilts 
Devizes 
B3 
6 
mid
green 
116 
72 
72 
c.5 
6 
indet 
98 
C 
ancient 
fresh 
flaw;L;T 
nil 
Annable and Simpson 1964, no 125 
16 
Tring (The Grove) 
Herts 
Devizes 
C1 
4 
dark
green 
100 
23 
20 
7 
7 
33.46 
99 
S 
ancient 
slight 
L 
T 
Anon
1787 
17 
?Bishops
Cannings 
Wilts 
Devizes 
B3 
?6 
pale
blue/grey 
indet 
35 
35 
2 
5 
4.84 
indet 
frag; chF 
ancient 
very 
indet 
D 
Annable and Simpson 1964, no 447 
18 


AC
Arch 
B2 
4 
pale
blue/grey 
116 
40 
37 
5 
7 
42.8 
98 
chB 
ancient 
slight 
flaw;L;T;D 

unpublished 
19 

Herefs 
WorcsCC 
B 
1
survives 
pale
blue/grey 
indet 
indet 
indet 
4 
3 
3.89 
indet 
frag 
ancient 
fresh 
D 
D 
Harrison
et al 1999 
20 
T



B2 
4 
pale
blue 
104 
31 
29 
4 
4 
25.85 
100 


slight 
D 
D:wear 
unpublished 
21 
Ferrybridge 


C1 
4 
dark
green 
126 
36 
30 
6 
6 
63.31 
98 
Cch 
ancient 
slight 
L 
nil 
Roe
and Woodward in prep 
22 
Amesbury
Archer 
Wilts 

B1 
2 
red 
124 
23 
19 
6 
6 
43.95 
100 


fresh 
D;T 
few 
Roe
fc 
23 
Amesbury
Archer 
Wilts 

B1 
2 
black 
134 
31 
29 
6 
6 
51.79 
100 


fresh 
L;someT 
nil 
Roe
fc 
24 
Gravelly Guy ( 
Oxon 

B2 
4 
pale
blue/grey 
95 
37 
36 
4 
6 
32.16 
98 
BCch 
ancient 
slight 
D;T;someL 
few 
Roe
fc 
25 
Cotswold
Community (Shorncote) 
Gloucs 

B 
2
survive 
pale
blue/grey 
indet 
28 
28 
2 
5 
5.12 
c.33 
half
gone 
ancient 
slight 
nil 
nil 
Roe
fc 
26 

Wilts 

A1 
2 
black 
110 
29 
29 
9 

49.74 
100 


worn 
pitted 

Evans
et al 1983 








































1.
Sturry (Milners Gravel Pit)
The length given in milimetres would equate to exactly 6.02361 inches and it's quite obvious that this length was meant to convey exactly 6inches. The amount of excess in the stated length, which is rounded to the nearest millimetre, equates to only about ^{1}/42nd of an inch. It's, therefore, obvious that this artefact was a measurement rule set to half a foot of length.
The bracer has a slight taper overall with the larger end width given as 36 mm. This would equate to1.41732". The actual intended code was the very factorable lunar value, 1.4175" (1^{167}/400ths) as this is a very strong code, well represented in both ancient Egyptian edifices or within the layout geometry and lengths found on ancient British sites like Avebury or around Durrington Walls Henge.
The 14175 value sets up a mathematical progression related to the Moon, which goes: 1417.5, 2835 (note: the Khafre Pyramid of Egypt, which was Egypt's Pyramid of the Moon, has a full perimeter measurement of 2835', based upon side lengths of 708.75 feet each), 4252.5, 5670, 7087.5, 8505, etc., and all the values relate to 4 main cycles of the Moon, i.e. the lunar month, year, lunar period monitored within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar and the lunar nutation cycle (6804days).
The other end of this codebearing wristguard was measured as 33 mm and this would equate to exactly 1.29921". Based upon many other instances of usage, we can say with relative confidence that the intended width was 1.296" (1^{111}/375ths). The difference would amount to approximately ^{1}/315th of an inch and be visually undetectable.
The importance of this mathematical progression is that it provides all of the pertinent numbers that relate to the long cycle of the Precession of the Equinoxes, as well as to navigation. It goes: 1296, 2592, 3888, 5184, 6480, 7776, 9072, 10368, 11664, etc. Here are just a few of the scientific principles encoded within this progression.
1. Half the cycle of Precession is 12960years.
2. The full cycle of Precession is 25920years
3. The sum of 388.8miles equates to ^{1}/64th of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
4. The Great Pyramid's slope angle was designed to be 51.84degrees and the area of its base is 5184 square Reeds. The Octagon geometric earth embankment complex of Newark, Ohio, USA lies on an azimuth angle of 51.84degrees.
5. One quarter of the Precessional cycle would be 6840years.
6. The sum of 777.6miles would equate to ^{1}/32nd of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
7. The length of the Great Pyramid @ 756' equals 9072".
8. The Earth, with a circumference of 24883.2miles spins at a rate of 1036.8 MPH.
9. A Roman foot was 11.664". The cubic inch capacities of Egyptian volumes were: theban (11664), beshu (1166.4) & honnu (116.64) respectively.
Area codes:
6" X 1.4175" = 8.505" (there are 8 periods of 850.5days in the
6804day lunar nutation cycle.
6" X 1.296" = 7.776" ( the sum of 777.6miles would be ^{1}/32nd
of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
The weight of the artefact is given as 64.54 gms and this estimate supposedly represents 85% of the original weight, which would equate to approximately 74.221 gms for the complete unit. By this approximation, the original weight would have been almost exactly 1145.833333 grains and the value generated would relate to the equatorial circumference of the Earth. The sum of 11.4583333miles (11^{11}/24ths ... 60500') would be ^{1}/6th of 1degree of arc for a world configured to be 24750miles in equatorial circumference.
Note: under this second navigational system, found on the Great Pyramid of Giza, 1minute of arc for the equatorial circumference was 6050' rather than the literal 6048' feet built into two circumnavigation of the base (8 X 756'). The whole 5280' mile system of world navigation and positional plotting at sea was based upon symbolically elongating the base length of the Great Pyramid from 756' to 756.25' (a mere 3"). This system remained very popular in the British Isles and regions of Continental Europe bordering the Atlantic, whereas the late era Greeks of the Mediterranean tended more towards the 5250' mile based upon the Great Pyramid's literal dimensions.
Although the 1145.833333grain value would be dynamic, a more common and expected code would be 1152grains (74.64834432 grams). The 1152 mathematical progression would go: 1152 (note: the outer faces of the lintels on the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge average 11.52'), 2304, 3456 (note: the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge would have been 345.6' or 30 lintels X 11.52'), etc.
2. Hemp Knoll, Wiltshire. This bracer is said to be approximately 95% complete and measures 118 mm in length. It can be seen as exhibit "c" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
The rounded length in millimetres would equate to 4.64566 inches. The intended code was 4.6656 or approximately ^{1}/50th of an inch greater. The mathematical progression goes like this: 466.56, 933.12, 1399.68, 1866.24, 2332.8, etc.
1. At Stonehenge there is a marker on the Avenue of 233.28' radius from site centre, marking a circle of 466.56 diameter.
2. The Babylonian heavy talent was 933120 grains.
3. The sum of 186624' would be 1/700th of the 24883.2 Greekmile equatorial circumference (130636800').
4. The sum of 233280' would be 1/560th of the 24883.2 Greek mile circumference, etc.
The maximum width of the bracer is 48 mm and this equates to 1.88976". The intended mathematical progression to be encoded by this width was 1.89" or about ^{1}/4000th of an inch longer than Ann Woodward's measurement. This progression would go: 189, 378, 567, 756, 945, 1134, 1323, 1512, 1701, etc.
1. The sum of 1890days ÷ 64 = 29.53125days (the precise length of a lunar month), whereas 1890days ÷ 63 = 30 (the length of a solar month). This mathematical principle was incorporated into the Druidic Calendar of Coligny artefact.
2. The sum of 378' was half the side length of the Great Pyramid or ^{1}/16th of 1minute of equatorial arc.
3. The value, 567days, is ^{1}/12th of the 6804day lunar nutation cycle, where the moon oscillates between standstills.
4. The Great Pyramid is 756' long and this length is ^{1}/8th of 1minute of equatorial arc under that navigational system. The formula for finding the Egyptian Royal Cubit that went with this system was 756' (9072") ÷ 440 = 20.61818182".
5. The value of 11.34days is a valuable interval for tracking the progress of the Moon through 3 different lunar cycles.
6. The sum of 1701days is ^{1}/4th of the lunar nutation cycle, under the ancient system of using highly factorable numbers to describe the astronomical and navigational sciences.
The minimum distance width of this stone is given as 43 mm and this equates to 1.69291". The intended code for this mathematical progression was 1.701", which is an increase on Woodward's figure of about ^{1}/125th of an inch (visually undetectable). Here are values within this progression: 1701, 3402, 5103, 6804, 8505, 10206, 11907, 13608, etc.
1. The duration of 1701days is ^{1}/4th of the lunar nutation cycle.
2. The widths of the southern circle at Avebury and the Ring of Brodgar are 340.2'.
3. The sum of 6804days was used to describe the 6798.36day nutation cycle in highly factorable numbers, for easy calculation.
4. The sum of 850.5days is ^{1}/3rd of the 2551.5day lunar period monitored within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar.
The weight of the stone is given as 79.61 grams and this is estimated to be 95% of the original weight, which would thus have been about 83.5905 grams. This translates to 1290 grains. A very dynamic value would have been only 6 grains heavier at 1296. Note the Babylonian Archane volume was 129600 cubic inches. A mathematical progression based upon 1296 would generate the essential values for the 25920year Precession of the Equinoxes cycle (as encoded into the Sturry (Milners Gravel Pit) bracer).
3. Barnack, Cambridgeshire. This bracer, although broken, is 100% complete. It measures 105 mm and can be seen as exhibit "d" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
The given length in millimetres would equate to 4.13385", but the intended code was 4.125" (4^{1}/8th) or about ^{1}/112th of an inch shorter (visually undetectable).
This mathematical progression relates to the 5280' mile (based upon the 11 family of values) and navigational / positional plotting calculations for a world configured to be 24750miles in equatorial circumference. This is how the progression goes: 41.25, 82.5, 123.75, 165, 206.25, 247.5, 288.75, 330, 371.25, 412.5, 453.75, 495, ... 618.75, 660, etc.
1. There would be 75 old merchant fathoms (of 5.5' each) in 412.5'.
2. The sum of 82.5' would be ^{1}/64th of a mile.
3. There would be 22.5 ancient fathoms in 123.75'.
4. The ancient English league was 16500' and the rod / perch was 16.5' (3 fathoms).
5. There were three different Egyptian Royal Cubits and the one used within the 11 family of numbers was 20.625". The cubits were used as mnemonic devices for remembering the equatorial size of the Earth.
6. The 20.625" cubit X 440 = 756.25' (9075"), which constituted ^{1}/8th of 1minute of arc for a world configured to be 24750 miles (of 5280' each) in equatorial circumference.
7. The sum of 330' is half a furlong/ furrowlong.
8. The height of the Great Pyramid to the top of it's flat floor altar (it has never been seen to have a capstone) is 264 Egyptian Royal Cubits. By the 20.625" cubit that height would be 453.75'.
9. The ancient Scottish mile (1furlong longer than the English mile) was 5940'.
10. In a world with an equatorial circumference of 24750miles, the sum of 6187.5miles would be a quarter part.
11. 660' is a furlong
The maximum width of the bracer is 71 mm and this translates to 2.79527". The sought after value was 2.8" or an increase on Woodward's rounded millimetre value of about ^{1}/210th of an inch. A mathematical progression based upon 2.8 would generate many very useful calendar related numbers, such as 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 196, 224, 252, etc.
Under the Sabbatical Calendar system there were 28days to each month and 13months in a year (364days). The calendar was allowed to run like this for seven solar years and, during that time built up a deficit error of 8.75days. At the end of the Sabbatical Year (7th year) there would be a festival of 9days, where intercalary days were added and the calendar started again fully corrected. Counts of 7, 14, 28, etc., were very important to this agrarian or peasant system, although the savants followed a very precise, dailytracked lunisolar system, using parapegma boards or plaques like the Calendar of Coligny.
The minimum width is 66 mm and this translates to 2.59842". The actual value sought after was undoubtedly 2.6" or an increase on Woodward's metric measurement by about ^{1}/640th of an inch.
The simple progression would generate calendar related values related to 52weeks in a year, through the Sabbatical Calendar periods, but another value was symbolically or mnemonically included and that was 2.5920". The dual coding of two very close proximity progressions kept at the forefront of memory the Sabbatical and Precessional cycles, within the same length, simultaneously.
The weight of the bracer is 81.52 grams and this translates fluidly to 1260 grains, which makes it exactly ten times the grain weight of an ancient BabylonianSumerian single standard Shekel weight (126 grains), whereas the double standard Shekel weight was twice that at 252 grains. This grainweight system was used in ancient Babylon for measuring out quantities of gold. The same double and single standards were adopted by Charlemagne in 789 AD. Much the same system, based upon 126 grains, was adopted by King John of France in 1350 AD for his Pile, Livre and Marc weights. A mathematical progression based upon 126 is dynamic in navigation and a Greek foot was 12.6", whereas a Hebrew Reed was 126" or 10.5'. There would be 5000 Greek feet in a Greek mile or 2500 Assyrian cubits of 25.2" each . There would also be 500 Hebrew Reeds in a Greek mile. All of these measurements were encoded into carefully placed surveying positions on the landscapes of Britain centuries or millennia before there were any Assyrians, Hebrews or Greeks.
4.
Mildenhall
This bracer is considered to be 98% complete and is 102 mm in length. It can be seen as exhibit "i" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
This length equates to 4.01574 and was intended to represent exactly 4" or ^{1}/3rd of a foot. The measurement supplied by Ann Woodward is about ^{1}/64th of an inch in excess of 4", which is virtually undetectable. At this juncture of the study we have found two bracers which are direct ratio expressions of the British standard foot.
The bracer's maximum width is 58 mm, which translates to 2.28346". A coded
width of 2.268" (about ^{1}/64th of an inch
less than Woodward's measurement) would set up a dynamic mathematical progression
related to navigation and the cycles of the Moon simultaneously. The progression
goes: 22.68, 45.36, 68.04, 90.72. 113.4, etc.
1. The Great Pyramid @ 756' per side = 2268' for 3 side lengths.
2. Petrie measured the vertical height to the top of the Great Pyramid to be within an inch of 453.6'. The pyramid's length @ 9072" is 4536" X 2.
3. The sum of 6804days is the duration of the lunar cycle where the Moon goes to minor standstill, then returns to major standstill. The actual period is 18.6129years and 6804days describes it very closely in factorable numbers.
4. The sum of 9072" is the length of the Great Pyramid or ^{1}/8th of 1minute of equatorial arc.
5. Herodotus was told by Egyptian Priests that the Great Pyramid was 800' long. The foot they were talking about was 11.34" and this was used as a lunar calculator. The width of the Station Stones rectangle at Stonehenge is 113.4'.
The minimum width is measured as 54 mm. This equates to 2.12598". The actual value sought after was 2.12625 or about ^{1}/3700th of an inch more than Woodward's measurement. A mathematical progression based on this generates a string of very useful lunar values used within the lunar nutation cycle. The progression goes: 212.625, 425.25, 637.875, 850.5, ... 1701, ... 2551.5, ...6804.
1. The sum of 212.625days (212^{5}/8ths) is ^{1}/12th of the 7.2 lunar year period monitored within the Sabbatical Calendar.
2. The sum of 212.625days is ^{1}/32nd of the 6804day cycle.
3. The values themselves show that the lunar cycles could be followed within a 360degree or 320 segment circle.
Area codes:
4" X 2.268" = 9.072" (the length of the Great Pyramid is 9072"
and 9072' = 1.5 minutes of equatorial arc).
4" X 2.12625" = 8.505" (there would be 8 X 850.5days in the
6804day lunar nutation cycle).
The weight of this (slightly worn) bracer artefact is given as 88.93 grams and this is estimated to be 98% of its original weight, which would have meant something close to 89.8193 grams. This would equate to 1386.124 grains. It seems very likely that the stone was fabricated to be 1400 grains (90.718474 grams), Another dynamic navigational code, however, in the very near proximity to Woodward's final estimate would be 1382.4 grains (89.578013184 grams).
A mathematical progression based upon 1382.4 would go: 1382.4, 2764.8, 4147.2, ...6912, 8294.4, ... 12441.6, ...24883.2.
1. The sum of 1382.4miles would be ^{1}/18th of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
2. A distance of 41472" would be 2000 of the largest Egyptian Royal Cubits @ 20.736".
3. A distance of 69.12miles would be 1degree of arc in a world configured to be 24883.2miles.
4. 12441.6miles is half the distance around the Earth under this navigational and positional plotting system.
5.
Sittingbourne, Kent.
This bracer is said
to be 99% complete
The length equates to 3.77952
A mathematical progression based upon this value goes: 378, 756, 1134, 1512, 1890, 2268, 2646, 3024, ....6048 ....etc. and relates to the equatorial circumference of the Earth under the Great Pyramid's literal navigational assignment. Essentially, this length on the Sittingbourne bracer is twice the width value of the Hemp Knoll bracer found in Wiltshire and contains the same mathematical progression, albeit in doubledout values.
6.
Brandon Fields
This bracer is estimated to be 96% complete. It can be seen as exhibit "h" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
The length measurement is 115 mm and this converts to 4.52755". Again the sought after value was 4.536" or about ^{1}/120th of an inch longer than Woodward's measurement.
The maximum width is 36mm, which, again duplicates the (lunar) width code of 1.4175" already encountered on the Sittingbourne & Sturry bracers.
The minimum width is 34 mm and this converts to 1.33858. The sought after value for encoding was 1.3333333" (1^{1}/3rd) or about ^{1}/200th of an inch less than Woodward's recorded value. A progression based upon this value divides the 12inch foot into ninths.
Another close proximity code that would have been remembered alongside 1.33333" is 1.32". This value is only ^{1}/54th of an inch less that Woodward's measurement, which was rounded to the nearest millimetre and 1.32" could well have been the primary code for mnemonic recall. This sets up a mathematical progression that relates to the mile of 5280' and principles of navigation associated with it. The progression goes: 132, 264, 396, 528, 660, 792, 924, 1056, 1188, 1320, 1452, 1584, ...2112, ...5280, ... 16500.
1. The sums of 1320', 2640' & 3960' are a quarter, half and three quarters of a mile, respectively.
2. A mile is 5280'.
3. A furlong or furrowlong is 660'.
4. The diameter of the Earth is 7920miles.
5. The sum of 10560' is two miles.
6. The ancient English league was 16500' or 3.125miles.
Area code:
4.536" X 1.3333333" = 6.048" (Under the Great Pyramid's geodetic
assignment, 6048' = 1minute of equatorial arc).
The weight of the artefact given is 38.77 grams and this is estimated to represent 96% of the original weight, which would mean the complete item weighed about 40.3208 grams. This converts very well to 622.08 grains, and the sum of 622.08miles represented ^{1}/40th of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
7. Sewell (Totternhoe). This bracer measures 101 mm and is estimated to be 100% complete. It can be seen as exhibit "g" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
The length converts to 3.97637" which is only about ^{1}/42nd
of an inch off 4". It, therefore, carries the same length code as the Mildenhall
In a purely symbolic sense the 4" length would have also called to mind the value 3.96", which related to divisions of the Earth under the 24750mile assignment. For example: 3960miles would be the radius of the Earth and 3960' would be ^{1}/33000rd of the equatorial circumference.
The bracer's width is given as 43 mm, which converts to 1.69291" and this is only about ^{1}/124th of an inch short of 1.701". The intended code was lunar and related to the Moon's 6804day cycle.
Area code:
4" X 1.701" = 6.804" (The lunar nutation cycle endures for 6804days).
The artefact weighs 45.03 grams and this converts to 694.919096631 grains and it seems obligatory that the intention was to encode 700 grains, or a shortfall of only 5 grains. This weight would be half that of the Mildenhall bracer.
8. Driffield, Yorkshire. This bracer measures 127 mm and is estimated to be 100% complete. It can be seen as exhibit "b" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
This length converts to exactly 5".
The maximum width is 33 mm and this converts to 1.29921" and this is only about ^{1}/48th of an inch off 1.32". There are, therefore, three sets of important codes that hover close to this value.
The first of these is the 1.3 progression, which relates to the calendar and the 13 months of 28 days each in the annual count (364days), with weeks, months and years rolling over undisturbed for 7years until intercalaryday correction at the end of the Sabbatical Year.
It might be added that, under the two most used navigational and positional plotting (deadreckoning) systems of antiquity, the Earth was considered to be (1) 130636800' in circumference and (2) 130680000' in circumference, respectively.
The second progression that hovers close to 1.3 is the 1.296 value used in calculating the duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes or intervals therein.
The third close proximity progression stems from the 1.32 foundation value, breaking the 5280' mile or 16500' league into lesser divisions.
The minimum width of the bracer is 28 mm and this converts to 1.10236. The width was 1.1" and designed to set up an 11 numerical progression, which constituted the foundation value for the fathom (5.5' originally), rod/perch (16.5'), chain (66'), furlong/furrowlong (660'), mile (5280') and league (16500').
Also, a very important tutorial was built into the rounded aspect at the midsection of the bracer, where a flat (diameter) was compared to a curved outer halfcircumference. The rule learnt and practised in antiquity is that an "11" based diameter will convert to a circumference where the divisions are sexagesimal and easy to exploit within a 360degree environment. This scientific principle in the manipulation of PI (3.1416) led to linear legs of travel at sea being done in leagues of 16500', then using PI @ ^{1728}/550ths, (3.141818182) this converts to 51840' of circumference or 144' (12 X 12) X 360 (degrees). Therefore, using this method for positional plotting on the sea chart, despite many zigzag course changes to tack back and forth across the ley line with the wind, meant that the exact direction back to the point of departure or onwards to the destination could be constantly calculated mathematically.
Likewise. the halfround ends of the bracer @ 1.32" diameter convert to 4.1472" using the "11" form of PI @ ^{1728}/550ths. This value is an expression of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference and the sum of 414.72miles would be ^{1}/60th of that overall circumference or 6degrees of arc. The outer rim circumference of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge is 345.6' or 41472".
Area codes:
5" X 1.32" = 6.6 (the chain is 66' and the furlong 660').
5" X 1.1" = 5.5" (the ancient fathom was 5.5' and 5500' is ^{1}/3rd
of a league of 16500').
The bracer's weight of 64.05 grams converts to 988.442552503 grains and in keeping with the "11" based coding found in the artefact's width measurements, it appears obvious that the weight was intended to convey 990grains.
9. Calne, Wiltshire. This bracer measures 123 mm and is estimated to be 99% complete. It can be seen as exhibit "a" in the picture at the beginning of this article.
The length converts to 4.84251" and it seems that the intended mathematical progression was based upon 4.86" or about ^{1}/60th of an inch greater than Woodward's rounded measurement to the nearest millimetre. A mathematical progression founded on this value would go: 486, 972, 1458, 1944, 2430, 2916, 3402, 3888, 4374, 4860, 5346, 5832, ...6804, ... 7290, 7776, ...11664, etc.
This 486 progression is very important to navigation using the (socalled) Roman mile and other increments within the Roman system of metrology, as well as to lunar cycle calculations. For example:
1. The Roman mile was 5000 Roman feet of 11.664" or 4860 British standard feet.
2. The Druidic Calendar of Coligny brass plaque, found at Ain, France, was 4.86' long or 1 Roman Pace of 58.32".
3. At Stonehenge, first glint of the rising Sun at the Summer Solstice occurs at 48.6degrees azimuth from sitecentre.
4. The Greek volume called a Chous was 194.4 cubic inches.
5. The sum of 388.8miles would be ^{1}/64th of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
6. A Roman Pace was 58.32' or 5 Roman feet of 11.664".
7. The sum of 6804days is the duration of the lunar nutation cycle.
8. The longest cross measure, point to point, of the Bush Barrow Lozenge is 7.29" or ^{1}/8th of a Roman Pace.
This lineup of sporadic details is simply to indicate that these numbers have been around and used for thousands of years. They are found within everyone's feet or cubits, volumes and weights standards and were shared between countless generations of cousin nations, such that the concept of abundant, organised "civilisation" could have continuance.
The maximum width of the Calne bracer is 46 mm and this converts to 1.81102". A very important mathematical progression that hovers close to this value is 1.82625", which is an increase on Woodward's measurement by about ^{1}/64th of an inch. This progression is founded on the duration of 182.625days or the number of days between the Autumn and Vernal equinoxes (half a year).
It's far more likely, however, that the width was intended to convey exactly 1.8", which is a decrease on Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement by about ^{1}/90th of an inch. This very important mathematical progression goes: 18, 36, 54, 72, 90, 108, 126, 144, 162, 180,198, 216, 234, 252, 270, 288, 306, 324, 342, 360, 378, 396, 414, 432, 450, 468, 486, etc.
It can be seen that this lineup contains multiple values used copiously in ancient weights, measures and volumes.
The minimum width of the artefact was 40 mm and this converts to 1.5748". The sought after value for capture was 1.575" and this relates to navigation by the Greek mile of 5250' or values important to lunar cycle calculations. The progression goes: 1575, 3150, 4725, 6300, 7875, 9450, 11025, 12600, 14175, 15750, ... 18900, ...25200, ...28350, ... 37800, ... 70875, ... etc.
Another tutorial built into this semicircular bracer relates to a navigational principle that any value based upon the combined "6&7" number families will convert to an "11" family circumference using PI @ ^{22}/7ths. This very important navigational principle was at the basis of the whole (socalled) Greek system of navigation, where linear legs of travel in Greek miles converted to English leagues of circumference using PI @ ^{22}/7ths. Hence: 5250' X ^{22}/7ths = 16500' of circumference.
This principle is encoded into the central region of the Calne bracer where 1.575" converts to 4.95" of circumference. In larger, full numbers, this would mean that 1575' (2.5 Greek stadiums of 630' or 3 short stadiums of 525') would convert to 4950' or 900 fathoms of 5.5' each (the ancient merchantseaman fathom was still in use during the early 20th century).
The weight given for the Calne bracer is 62 grams and the artefact is considered to be 99% complete. This would infer that the original weight was something near 62.62 grams, which converts to 966.374280059 grains. It's highly likely that the intended weight of the original artefact was 960 grains.
THE CODE BEARING STONES OF THE AMESBURY ARCHER
10. The Amesbury Archer's smaller red bracer is measured as being 124 mm long and is estimated to be 100% complete. The sum of 124 mm converts to 4.88188".
Again, the intended design length appears to be 4.86" which is a shortfall on Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement by about ^{1}/45th of an inch. The artefact therefore carries the same mathematical progression as found on the Calne bracer located in Wiltshire : 486, 972, 1458, 1944, 2430, 2916, 3402, 3888, 4374, 4860, 5346, 5832, ...6804, ... 7290, 7776, ...11664, etc. Measuring rules, based upon what thousands of years later became recognised as the Roman system, could have been fabricated from this length.
The widest part of the bracer, in its central region is measured as 23 mm, which converts to .90551". The obviously intended measurement was .9 of an inch, which is a shortfall on Woodward's figure of about ^{1}/180th of an inch. This means that the Amesbury Archer's red bracer carried the same mathematical progression (albeit at halfvalue) as the Calne bracer for maximum widths of both Wiltshirefound artefacts. From such an increment, other measuring devices could be fabricated, including yardsticks, etc., based upon the English foot.
At the same time the width measurement would have been symbolically recognised as .9072" and mnemonically refer to navigation. The design length of the Great Pyramid was 9072" and 9072' represented 1.5 minutes of equatorial arc.
The lesser width of the Amesbury Archer's red bracer is 19 mm and this translates to .74803". This was very obviously intended to be .75 of an inch and achieves that to well within ^{1}/500th of an inch. Other measuring devices, based upon the English foot, could also be fabricated from this incremental width.
The weight of this red bracer is accurately measured as 43.95 grams and this equals 678.25214961 grains. It seems obvious that this weight was meant to be 680.4 grains and encode the duration of the lunar nutation cycle @ 6804days. The weight of this bracer was, thereby, intended to be the same as the Sittingbourne bracer located in Kent.
Area Codes:
4.86" X .9" = 4.374" (The sum of 4374' would be 4500 Roman feet).
4.86" X .75"
= 3.645 (the sum of 3.645" would be ^{1}/16th
of a Roman Pace).
11. THE AMESBURY ARCHER'S BLACK BRACER
The larger, black stone bracer of the Amesbury Archer is 134 mm and this converts to 5.27558". The intended length was obviously 5.25", or a slight decrease to Woodward's rounded millimetre length amounting to about ^{1}/40th of an inch.
This is a dynamic mathematical progression, from which all of the (socalled) Greek measurements can be derived. A mathematical progression founded on 5.25" goes: 5.25, 10.5, 15.75, 21, 26.25, 31.5, 36.75, 42, 47.25, 52.5, 57.75, 63, 68.25, 73.5, 78.75, 84, 89.25, 94.5, 99.75, 105, ...126, ... 252, ... 2835, ...5250, etc.
With this bracer, once 24 increases had produced an accurate length of 126", this could be scaled back in tenths to be ten Greek feet of 12.6" each. Alternatively, 126" would represent 1 Reed (10.5') and there would be either 5000 Greek feet or 500 Reeds in a Greek mile of 5250'.
Each of these increments in this mathematical progression could be used to track the cycles of the Moon. For example, 67.5 intervals of 5.25days would be a lunar year of 354.375days. The period of the Moon monitored within the lunisolar calendar was 2551.5days, which amounted to exactly 7.2 lunar years. The sum of 486 X 5.25days = 2551.5days and 487 X 5.25days = 2556.75days (365.25days X 7 ... the 7 solar years of the Sabbatical Calendar). Moreover, the sum of 6804days (the the duration of the lunar nutation cycle) = 5.25days X 1296 (36 X 36).
What this means is that the Amesbury Archer, using this 5.25" length alone, could recreate the entire Greek navigational system of positional plotting and dead reckoning at sea, as well as all of the intricacies of the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar.
The widest measurement of the stone equates to 31 mm and this translates to 1.22047" . It seems apparent that the intended width was 1.2" or about 1/48th of an inch less than Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement. This increment would effectively decimalise the foot and 10 X 1.2" = 12".
Only another very precise measure of the artefact, using imperial measurements, will reveal if this width code was supposed to be 1.2" or 1.25" (possibly even 1.26", given that the whole "socalled" ancient Greek system of metrology can be reconstructed from its length alone).
The least wide measurement across this stone is 29 mm and this translates to 1.14173". The likeliest code for this lesser width lurks about 1/100th of an inch in excess of Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement. That code is 1.152". A mathematical progression founded on this value goes: 11.52*, 23.04. 34.56, 46.08, 57.6, 69.12, 80.64, 92.16, 103.68, 115.2, 126.72, 138.24, 149.76, 161.28, 172.8, ...207.36, ... 288, ... 311.04, ....24883.2.
* It's worthy to note that the average length for the outer face of the lintels of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge is 11.52' and that a complete circuit (11.52 X 30 lintels) was 345.6' (4147.2"). Substituting inches for miles, the sum of 4147.2miles would be ^{1}/6th of the 24883.2mile equatorial circumference.
As can be seen, this mathematical progression provides essential incremental values for creating a mathematical model for a world that is 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2miles in equatorial circumference. Under the geodetic system, encoded into the Great Pyramid's base dimensions, those miles were 5250' in length.
Area codes:
5.25 X 1.2 = 6.3 (there are 630' in a Greek Stadia).
5.25
X 1.152 = 6.048 (there are 6048' in 1minute of equatorial arc)
The weight of this black stone is 51.79 mm, which translates to 799.241839097 grains. We can safely accept that this stone was fabricated to be 800 grains.
Ann Woodward makes a telling comment about the large percentage of these bracers that have a corner broken off:: "Another possibility is that one corner was deliberately removed, as a ritual action, in order to ‘disable’ the artefact prior to its deposition in the grave".
This is a very plausible assessment concerning mnemonic devices that were personal, venerated treasures to their bearers. Only the ownersavants or their peers could understand the fullness of scientific information encoded into the bracer stones.
Like the Egyptian Hypocephalus funerary amulet (with celestial navigational
symbolism), placed behind the head in Egyptian burials, the BeakerPeople placed
geometrically incised burial pots into their graves. Some of these pots carried
designs like the "lozenge within the lozenge within the lozenge" of
the exact same design configuration as the gold Bush Barrow Lozenge artefact
found near Stonehenge. That particular object carries very recognisable codes
of length, breadth and angles.
It would almost seem that there was a crossover of religious concepts shared
between the Egyptians and the Beaker people concerning the journey of the afterlife.
On the Hypocephalus, Ptah, the great architect of the universe is depicted,
to offer guidance to the newly dead in the perilous journey to Orion, using
the dog star, Sirius, as the pointer of the way. Similarly, the common Beaker
people had looked to their sageleaders for guidance in life for and the maintenance
of very exacting standards, based upon profound astronomicalnavigationalmathematical
knowledge. That continuouslyflowing knowledge, imbued within the geometric
designs of the burial pot, would guide them to their heavenly home in the afterlife.
The sages themselves also took their codebearing mnemonic devices with them
into their graves, undoubtedly as navigational aids to guide them to their stellar
destination.
Legend has it that the Stone of Scone, also known as the Stone of Destiny, was able to roar like a lion. Likewise, these smaller coded stones can speak volumes ... provided we have the ability to listen.
MORE RESULTS
There are a number of other bracer's in Woodward's list for which no photographs accompany the measurements.
12. Ireland. The first of these is from Ireland.and the stone is described as dark red. It's measured length is 94 mm, which converts to 3.70078".
A code that hovers very close to this is 3.7125", which is an increase on Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement by about ^{1}/86th of an inch. The sum of 371.25' would be ^{1}/16th of a Scottish Mile of 5940'. This mile was 1furlong (660') increase on the English mile of 5280'. The sum of 3712.5miles X 6.666666 = the 24750mile equatorial circumference of the Earth.
The maximum width of this bracer is 25 mm, which is recognisable to any carpenter who has worked in both metric and imperial measurements as an "inch". In very precise terms, the sum of 25 mm would be ^{1}/64th of an inch short of a true inch.
The minimum width is 24 mm which equates to 0.94488". It seems likely that the intended code was .96", which is ^{1}/66th of an inch increase. A mathematical progression founded upon 96 would generate a string of very useful navigational values. The progression goes: 96, 192, 288, 384, 480, 576, 672, 768, 864, ...1152, ... 1440, ... 1728, ... 2016, ... 2592, ... etc.
1. The Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge is 288' in diameter. An Egyptian pyramid acre was 28800 square feet.
2. A circle that contains the slightly elliptical Stonehenge site from North to South (excluding the Avenue) is 384' in diameter.
3. The Irish mile was 6720'.
4. A Geomancer's mile was 14400'.
5. A cubic foot is 1728 cubic inches.
6 The sum of 2016' is ^{1}/3rd of 1minute of equatorial arc (6048').
7. The Precession of the Equinoxes endures for 25920years (72 X 360).
Area codes:
3.7125" X 1" = 3.7125 sq. ins.
3.7125" X .96" = 3.564" sq. ins.
The weight of this 100% complete bracer was 47.96 grams and this converts to 740.135906605 grains. It seems apparent that the grain weight value was supposed to be a reflection of the length of the artefact and equate to 742.5 grains. The length value of 3.7125" X 2 = 7.425".
This bracer seems to accentuate codes to do with the Scottish mile of 5940' and principles of navigation using that increment.
13. Ireland (a second one). Again we have reference to a dark red bracer measuring 94 mm, so all of the selfsame 3.7125" codes apply equally in this case.
The greatest width of this item is, however, 18 mm and this equates to 0.70866". The sought after value was .70875" and this is a dynamic lunar code. A progression based upon 70875 would generate all essential values for tracking the lunar cycles, from the lunar year (354.375days ... half of 708.75) to the 2551.5day lunar period followed within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar (70.875 X 36) to the 6804day lunar nutation cycle (70.875 X 96). The Khafre Pyramid, which was designed to be ^{15}/16ths the length of the Great Pyramid (756') was 708.75' for a side length.
The lesser width is 13 mm which equates to 0.51181". This value is within ^{1}/84th of an inch off half an inch and probably related to that. However, a nearly perfect coded value would have been .5103" as this is a dynamic lunar code. The 2551.5day period of the Moon (7.2 lunar years) is 50 periods of 51.03days and the count could be effectively regulated to 51 day periods.
The weight is given as 18.83 grams and this represents about 99% of the original weight, which would therefore have been about 19.103 grams. This equates to 294.804341615 grains and it appears quite obvious that the value generated was meant to convey 295.3125 grains. The lunar month is 29.53125days (1890 ÷ 64) and this width on this mnemonic device was designed to keep that value at the forefront of memory.
14. Roundway
The largest width is given as 33 mm, which equates to 1.29921". While this width complies to 1.3" to within ^{1}/1200th of an inch and relates to calendar increments of 13months of 28days in a year (364), its primary mnemonic function was to convey 1.296". The encoding on this bracer from Roundway is the same Precession of the Equinoxes coding as that found upon the one found at Sturry (Milners Gravel Pit) and discussed as No. 1 in the above analysis.
The minimum width was measured by Woodward to be 32 mm and this equates to 1.25984". The sought after increment was 1.26" (about ^{1}/6000th of an inch longer), as this is one of the most dynamic of antiquity. With a sound knowledge of this one value alone, a mathematical progression could be initiated that would fully divulge the entire navigation and positional plotting system found in the base dimensions of the Great Pyramid, plus deliver up all of the pertinent values for the entire lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar system, including the 3main lunar cycles.
The weight is given for this 100% complete bracer as 35.85 grams and this translates to 553.250046951 grains. It seems apparent that this stone was meant to convey 550 grains and this encoding would be consistent with the 4.4" length of this stone ("11" series). The sum of 550'. The sum of 55' would be ^{1}/96th of a mile and 5500' would be ^{1}/3rd if a league.
15. Tytherington (or Corton)
The maximum width is 48 mm and this translates to 1.88976". The sought after value was 1.89" as this is at the basis of a dynamic, ancient mathematical progression. The length of the Great Pyramid is 189' X 4 and a progression based upon this number would provide the essential numbers for navigation around the world, grid referencing of maps or sea charts and positional plotting at sea.
The minimum width was 47 mm which translates to 1.85039". The value intended was probably 1.85625" to provide a mathematical progression that related to the Scottish mile of 5940'. The sum of 185.625' (185^{5}/8ths) would be ^{1}/32nd of a Scottish mile.
The weight is given as 37.18 grams for 90% of the worn, original artefact and this means it was in the vicinity of 40.898 grams when newly fabricated. This translates to 631.152591917 grains and was, convincingly, supposed to be 630 grains. A mathematical progression founded on this value would go: 63, 126, 189, 252, 315, 378, 441, 504, 567, 630, ... 756, ...1008, ...1134, ... 1260, ... 1512, ... 1701, ... 6048, ...etc.
This progression would provide all of the essential numbers for navigation around the world and accurate positional plotting, using the mile of 5250'.
16. Sutton Veny
The width of this bracer is given uniformly as 72 mm and this translates to 2.83464". The value is immediately recognisable as 2.835" and a dynamic lunar mathematical progression is generated by this value. The progression goes: 283.5, 567, 850.5, 1134, 1417.5, 1701, ... 2551.5, ... 2835, ... 3402, ... 4536, ... 5103, ... 6804, etc.
The Khafre Pyramid (^{15}/16ths the design length of the Great Pyramid) is 708,75' long and one circumnavigation of the edifice equates to 2835'. This mathematical progression will provide essential numbers for tracking the period of the moon within the lunar year, lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar or lunar nutation cycle.
Unfortunately no weight value for the Sutton Veny bracer has been provided for us to determine the intended code within the grainweight.
17. Tring (The Grove). This bracer is described as being dark green stone and is measured to be 100 mm in length, which equates to 3.937". The true or intended measurement was ^{1}/2000ths of an inch increase on this at 3.9375" (3^{15}/16ths) and this value is at the basis of a hugely important lunar mathematical progression. This progression goes: 39.375, 78.75, 118.125, 157.5, 196.875, 236.25, 275.625, 315, 354.375, ...472.5, ... 590.625, ... 630, ... 708.75, ... 1260, ... 1417.5, ... 1890, ... 2835, ... 2953.125, ... 7560, ..., etc.
In the above lineup the value 196.875 (grains) was used by the Egyptians and latter Romans for their "Beqa" gold standard. The value 354.375 is, of course, the length in days of the lunar year and 354.375' is half the length of the Khafre Pyramid (Egypt's Pyramid of the Moon). Alternatively, from the above lineup, the sum of 472.5 (feet) was the design height of the Khafre Pyramid and 590.625' was the length of its diagonal slope up each face to the apex. The Khafre Pyramid was designed and built as two 3,4,5 triangles backtoback.
This very dynamic progression simultaneously provides essential values for tracking lunar cycles, as well as navigation using the 5250' mile.
The largest width is 23 mm and this translates to 0.90551". The intended mathematical progression in this width was .9072", which is an increase on Woodward's measurement by about ^{1}/600th of an inch. A mathematical progression based upon this value would provide the essential numbers for navigation by the 5250' mile. The Great Pyramid @ 756' is 9072" long.
The minimum width code for this artefact is 20 mm, which translates to 0.7874". The sought after increment was .7875" (^{63}/80ths of an inch). This mathematical progression is essentially the same as that generated by the length code of the stone and carries both lunar and navigational coding.
The artefact weighs 33.46 grams and this is estimated to be 99% of the original stone. The weight when first fabricated would have been about 33.7946 grams, which translates to 521.530377593 grains. The sought after value was 525 grains and a mathematical progression based upon this value is related to the length and width codes found on this bracer, which accentuate lunar cycle numbers and navigation by the 5250' mile.
18.
The largest width is given as 40 mm, which translates to 1.5748". This width is immediately recognisable as 1.575" and is, essentially, the same progression as is found on the Tring bracer (No. 17 in the above list), except in doubledout values.
The minimum width is given as 37 mm, which translates to 1.45669". The intended code was 1.458" or about 1/800th of an inch increase on Woodward's measurement. A progression based upon this number goes: 1458, 2916, 4374, 5832, 7290, ... 11664, ...etc.
The progression has a relationship to the Sturry (Milners Gravel Pit ... No.1 in the list ) codes and Calne, Wiltshire bracer, which is No. 9 in the list. It is very nearly the same as that of the Amesbury Archer's smaller red bracer for its overall length code.
The weight is given as 42.8 grams and this represents an estimated 98% of the artefact's original weight, which would equate to approximately 43.565 grams. This translates to 672.310691644 grains and the true sought after value is easily recognised as 672 grains. A mathematical progression based upon this value goes: 672, 1344, 2016, 2688, 3360, 4032, 4704, 5376, 6048, ...10080, ... 16800, ... 30240, ... 36288, ... etc.
In the above lineup the sum of 2016 (feet) would be ^{1}/3rd of 1minute of arc of equatorial circumference under the Great Pyramid's geodetic assignment, whereas 10080' would be 100 seconds of arc. The sum of 6048' (36288") would be 1minute of equatorial arc, whereas 362880' would be 1degree of arc.
This bracer accentuates both lunar cycle values, navigation by (what became) the Roman mile and also navigation by (what became) the Greek mile. The grain weight also relates directly to the ancient Irish mile, which was 6720'.
19. T
The progression is lunar and navigational simultaneously. It generates values that relate to the (socalled) Roman mile and to intervals of time within the Precession of the Equinoxes.
The maximum width is given as 31 mm which translates to 1.22047" . An increment of 1.215" would be highly significant (about ^{1}/180th of an inch decrease on Woodward's measurement). This width mathematical progression would then be very similar to the one related to the assumed length code and relate to the same scientific principles.
The minimum width is given as 29 mm and this would translate to 1.14173" . The probable, intended width code was 1.152" or an increase on Woodward's measurement by about ^{1}/96th of an inch. Alternatively, a code of 1.134" (a decrease on Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement by about ^{1}/130th of an inch) would be plausible. The 1134 mathematical progression seems more likely and, if this was encoded, would relate to both the cycle of the Moon within the 6804day lunar nutation cycle, as well as navigation by the mile of 5250'.
The weight of this 100% complete bracer is given as 25.85 grams, which translates to 398.926463422 grains. This is very recognisable as 400 grains.
20. Ferrybridge.
This mathematical progression would relate to incremental values within both the 5280' English mile, as well as the 5940' Scottish mile and the 24750 mile (of 5280') equatorial circumference of the Earth.
The maximum width is given as 36 mm, which translates to 1.41732". The
intended code was 1.4175", the same as the Sturry & Brandon
Fields bracers
The minimum width is 30 mm, which translates to 1.1811". The intended measurement was 1.18125", which is a dynamic lunar code. The sum of 118.125days would be 4 lunar months. This coding is very similar to that of the Tring bracer (No. 17 in the above list).
The weight of this artefact is 63.31 grams and this is estimated to be 98% of the original weight, which would have equated to something near 64.5762 grams. This translates to 996.563059469 grains and is very recognisable as an intended 1000 grains.
21. Gravelly Guy. This bracer is pale blue/grey and measures 95 mm in length, which equates to 3.74015". The intended code was 3.75", which is an increase on Woodward's rounded millimetre measurement of about ^{1}/100th of an inch. A mathematical progression based upon this value would go: 3.75, 7.5, 11.25, 15, 18.75, 22.5, 26.25, 30, 33.75, 37.5, 41.25, 45, 48.75, 52.5, 56.25, 60, 63.75, 67.5, ...75, ... 90, ... 105, ... 112.5, ...120, ... 168.75, ... 180, ... 360, ... etc.
The mathematical progression allowed for tracking lunar cycles or navigating by the 5250' mile within a 360degree or 320 division circuit.
The maximum measurement of width is 37 mm and this equates to 1.45669". The intended measurement was 1.458" and therefore the same code as found on the West Stafford bracer. The progression has a relationship to the Sturry (Milners Gravel Pit ... No.1 in the list ) codes and Calne, Wiltshire bracer, which is No. 9 in the list. It is a related mathematical progression to that of the Amesbury Archer's smaller red bracer for its overall length code.
The minimum width of the bracer is 36 mm, which equates to 1.41732". This
was, again, intended to be 1.4175", the same as Sturry & Brandon
Fields bracers
The weight of the artefact is given as 32.16 grams and this represents 98% of the original weight. This would mean that it was about 32.8032 grams when fabricated and this translates to 506.230737522 grains. This value is very recognisable as 506.25 grains, which is part of a dynamic lunar progression. The progression goes: 50.625, 101.25, 151.875, 202.5, 253.125, 303.75, 354.375, 405, ... 708.75, ... 1417.5, ... 1620, ... 1771.875, ... 2835, ... etc.
The sum of 50.625 hours (1215 hours) is ^{1}/7th of a lunar year.
This is a highly scientific mathematical progression, relating to navigation by the 5250' mile and also to the Precession of the Equinoxes. All of these values were being taught in and around the Durrington Walls Henge complex, which included Stonehenge as an appendage classroom to the greater landscape geometry.
See: http://www.celticnz.co.nz/DurringtonWalls/Durrington%20Henge%201.htm
The uniform width of the bracer is 29 mm, which translates to 1.14173".
It's likely that this was meant to convey 1.134", the same lunar coding
as the T
The weight is given as 49.74 grams and this translates to 767.605504473 grains. It seems, on the surface that the intended weight was 768 grains and such a value would code navigation, but given that the bracer is described as "worn and pitted" a more likely code appears to be 777.6 grains. This also would be a dynamic navigational code.
SO, WHAT DID ALL OF THIS HIGHLY SCIENTIFIC NAVIGATIONAL  ASTRONOMICAL KNOWLEDGE LEAD TO?
Here is one of the many ancient stone pendants of New
Zealand, which is closely equivalent in design to the "bracers" of
Britain and Continental Europe half a world away (11,700miles).
It is made from very hard, precious greenstone and, given the huge amount of
effort expended in its fabrication, was intended for ceremonial usage only and
never as a tool.
This artefact is from the Oldman collection, gifted to the people of New Zealand
in 1992 and presently housed in the Te Papa Museum, Wellington, New Zealand.
The stone was carved at an unknown date, but listed as over 500years ago. The
source of the stone is in South Westland, a very isolated part of New Zealand's
South Island. It is typical of many very ancient greenstone pendants, large
and small, that have been found in New Zealand (mostly in ancient burials).
Like the English fabricators of "bracers", the most sought after colouration
for venerated stone objects in ancient New Zealand was "green".
This stone measures 300 mm in length and is 56 mm wide by 19 mm thick.
The length of this stone translates to 11.811". This measurement was intended to be 11.8125" or about 1/660th of an inch greater than the official measurement. It therefore carries the same dynamic lunar codes that were incorporated into the Tring and Ferrybridge bracers of Britain, as well as the Khafre Pyramid of Egypt.
The width of 56 mm translates to 2.20472" and the intended measurement appears to have been 2.2" or a decrease on the official measurement of about ^{1}/210th of an inch. A mathematical progression based upon 2.2 would relate to navigation by the 5280' (English) or 5940' (Scottish) miles. It would lead to an understanding of the radius and equatorial circumference of the Earth and how to mathematically grid reference the Earth for positional plotting and dead reckoning at sea for successful traversals of the great oceans.
The thickness of the stone is 19 mm. This translates to 0.74803" and is easily identifiable as .75 (^{3}/4ths) of an inch.
The original people of New Zealand had physiology described as "urukehu and kiripuwhero" (light, reddish skin coloration and red, golden tinged hair). They were also described as having whiteblond, yellow, brown through to black hair, with eyes that were green, blue or other European hues. They were called Patupaiarehe by the incoming Maori warriors (which means "hunt and kill). They were also called Turehu, Waitaha and many other regional names. Pocket groups of these original inhabitants existed into colonial times. They left standing stone circles and surveyinglandmapping related markers all over New Zealand, as well as massive excavations, drainage systems, etc. Their very MediterraneanEuropean cultural symbolism, as well as all that they owned or built was absorbed by their PolynesianMelanesian conquerors, and became known as Maori culture.
Martin Doutré, October 2010 ©