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Standing stone circles, like that of Koru PA, functioned on two primary levels. Certain observations, using the hubstone as the position where the observer stood, followed the solar rises and sets to determine the exact calendar days of Equinox or Solstice occurrence. Other outer marker points, such as hillock peaks or ridge lines, could be used for determining the ascent and descent positions of stars, as the Earth made its annual journey around the sun against a changing backdrop of stars.

The occasional astronomical component built into some stone positions was, however, quite secondary to "codes of position", based solely upon azimuth angle off north and distance out from the hubstone to any particular marker. The primary purpose of the stones of the site was to have them act as memory devices for teaching ensuing generations of initiate students astronomical, cyclic, navigational and calendar principles. To extract the codes built into any position, using the hubstone as the fulcrum or observation point, the students needed only two primary tools. These were a manual theodolite that could be swivelled through 360-degrees of calibrated arc and a measuring rope to determine exact distances out to a marker stone.

The sought after information was contained within "numbers", built mnemonically into each position, which represented the foundation knowledge upon which successful, flourishing and abundant ancient society was built. If the numbers could be remembered and handed on intact to the next generation, then mobilised, functioning "civilisation" could endure and survive any or most calamities and, in seriously disrupting circumstances, rebuild again. To lose ones grasp on the numbers was to doom one's offspring to diminished returns from nature and isolation from the rest of the world or its much needed, available resources. Successful agriculture and navigation were based upon very accurate calendar systems or the ability to mathematically or geometrically grid reference the Earth for successful traversal. This was the essential information that was built into the stone positions, then learned by rote, repetition and continuous practice by initiate students.


The Koru PA site has been wrecked and its stones now lie adjacent to their former standing positions. Getting a "very exact" reading from the former epicentre position of the hubstone to the (formerly) carefully positioned epicentre point of an outer marker stone is now unachievable. All one can do is determine, as best one can by careful observation, where everything was once positioned and then make an educated guess as to what the intended code was that the ancient astronomer-surveyors built into any particular alignment. Although this approach is imperfect, there is still a very high chance of "correctly-guessing" the intended codes, as they were based upon a very specific, repetitious parcel of highly factorable numbers. Some positions could be "either-or", as particular number families, containing scientific information, have "close proximity value" cross-over points and, therefore, in a memory sense, two or more codes can be inferred within a single position. Apart from the coded angle from the hubstone passing through the centre of the outer marker stone, the added, secondary options allowed for a reading of lines brushing the edges of the stone to its left or right.

There is little value in listing a whole batch of abstract and meaningless figures in our analysis of how this site worked, especially when the degree of error in ascertaining the former standing positions could be around 18-inches to 2-feet. The values given, therefore, will be the closest known code (as found upon the world-wide distribution of ancient edifices or code bearing structures) to within a couple of feet of where the Koru PA stones now repose. There will be very little error in this approach and further analysis, in the future, using ground penetrating radar or other state-of-the-art equipment to determining exact former standing positions, will allow for refinements and adjustments to present conclusions.

Here is a sampling of decipherable positions and how the ancient "Masters of the Craft" would have used each outer standing stone for tutoring students about the astronomical/ cyclic and navigational arts:

  1. This stone sits at 280-degrees azimuth and was measured to be 26 metres from the hubstone (85.30 feet). The actual distance was probably coded to be 85.05 feet (lunar and navigational progression). Another coded possibility would be 86.4 feet (solar and navigational progression). The degree angle (280) would infer the Sabbatical Calendar count of 28-days per month X 13-months per year (364-days), which was allowed to run for 7-solar years until correction during a festival at the end of the Sabbatical year. Under this lunisolar system, 7-solar years (2556.75-days) was counted concurrently to 7.2 lunar years (2551.5-days @ 354.375-days per lunar year = 850.5-days X 3). The difference between 2556.75-days (solar count) and 2551.5-days (lunar count) = 5.25-days. It is because of the 5.25-day (sixth day) difference in the two counts that the Druids held a mistletoe culling ceremony on the 6th day after commencing the solar count at the Summer Solstice. The mistletoe ceremony marked the beginning of the lunar count, so that both counts terminated on the same day at the end of the Sabbatical year. The sum of 85.05 feet is merely 81 Greek feet of 12.6 British Standard inches each. The lunar nutation cycle period, where the moon moves from Lunar Major Standstill to Lunar Minor Standstill and then back to Major Standstill again, was anciently factored to endure for 6804-days (6798.36-days actual). The period of 85.05-days (85 & 1/20th days) is 1/80th of 6804-days. Under the ancient, very factorable system of lunar cycle calibration, the lunar month duration (29.53125-days or 29 & 17/32nds of a day) was accurate to within 60 seconds of time against the true duration of the lunar month.

    The alternative coded distance suggested of 86.4 feet is 1/70th of 1-minute of equatorial arc under the Great Pyramid's geodetic system, which factored the Earth's circumference as 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 Greek miles of 5250 British Standard feet each (5000 Greek feet of 12.6-inches each) = 24883.2-miles. Under this system two circumnavigation's of the Great Pyramid @ 756 feet per side = 6048 feet or 1-minute of equatorial arc.

  2. This stone sits at 324-degrees and was measured to be 11.6 metres from the hubstone (38.06 feet). The probable distance code was 38.4 feet, as this value is a part of a very important navigational numerical progression. It also represents an incremental value within the Egyptian Pyramid acre. Herodotus, the Greek historian, learned from Egyptian priests that a long-standing tradition stated how each face of the Great Pyramid was considered to be 8 Egyptian acres. Inasmuch as the Great Pyramid has an intended design configuration base length of 756 feet, a side diagonal face length of 576 feet extending to a flat floor top altar that is 44 feet long per side, then the area of each face is 400 feet X 576 feet = 230400 square feet, of which 38.4 square feet would be 1/6000th part. The Egyptian Pyramid acre was, therefore, 28800 square feet. If this 28800 square feet area was, hypothetically, made up of floor tiles one foot square that could be laid out in a line, then 4536 segments @ 28800 feet per segment would represent the 24883.2 Greek mile equatorial circumference of the Earth. The vertical height from the base of the Great Pyramid to the surface of the flat floor altar atop the structure was designed to sit at 453.6 feet of elevation. Another way of finding this 453.6-feet value in the Great Pyramid geometry is to apply a rule inherent in any 3-4-5 triangle, wherein the adjacent will always be 1.6666666 less than the hypotenuse and the opposite will always be 1.25 less than the hypotenuse. Therefore, the base length of the Great Pyramid @ 756 feet ÷ 1.66666666 = 453.6 feet (the pyramid's height...note: it never had a capstone atop it in all recorded history). The 38.4 numerical progression is a part of the 1152 progression, which was of manifold importance to ancient astronomer-surveyor-navigator mathematicians.

    The degree angle from the hubstone @ 324-degrees is part of the "rounded PHI" code. Professor Alexander Thom found a recurring length amongst ancient British monuments, which he determined was about 32.4-inches long and dubbed it the "Megalithic Yard". In a pure PHI sense, this would be 20 PHI inches (1-inch X 1.6180339) or in a "rounded PHI" sense this would be 20 X 1.62-inches or 32.4-inches. The alignment extending through several valleys from the Koru PA hubstone to Mt. Taranaki (161.80339-degrees to 162-degrees) accentuates preservation of the PHI ratio knowledge. Similarly, one of the "Station Stones" at Stonehenge sits at 162-degrees azimuth from site centre. A large, outer-trig marker at the top of the Bombay Hills, South Auckland, New Zealand, complete with intricately executed incising and 5 bullaun bowls,. once sat at a coded azimuth angle very close to 161.8-degrees azimuth and 115200 feet (from the eastern edge of Mt. Wellington in the Auckland Isthmus... this trig marker had to be moved sideways when the southern motorway was put through in the mid 1980's. An increment of length from ancient Britain is something that Antiquarian, John Michel, has called the "Geomancer's Mile". He assigns a value to it of 14400 feet and mentions its copious ancient usage around Taunton, Southwest England. The ancient trig marker atop the Bombay Hills sat almost exactly 8-Geomancer's miles from Mt Wellington. The Mt. Wellington crest trench was used as the central target in an "Equinox" alignment that extended from stone markers atop Stockade Hill in Howick to another stone marker atop Mt Albert. The 10-mile long alignment cut through the trench in the eastern crest of Mt. Wellington, which structure represented the equinox alighting position (from Stockade Hill) or the equinox ascending position (from Mt. Albert). The Great Pyramid @ 756 feet of base length, is 280 Megalithic Yards long @ 32.4-inches per yard. In the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference of the Earth there would be 76.8 increments of 324-miles (76.8 = 38.4 X 2...which is where we came in). If we consider that the 180-degrees opposed angle to 324-degrees is 144-degrees, then another tutorial, based upon this important progression, is in the offering. The radius of the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge is 144-feet. The number of minutes in a 24-hour day is 1440. The Geomancer's Mile distance was 14400-feet. The Egyptian Pyramid acre was 28800 square feet (14400 X 2), etc., etc.

  3. This is a very important stone, with four ancient cups bored into it. It's probable that this was never a standing stone and also that the cups each represented individual coded alignment positions, from the epicentre of the hubstone, which were very important to the tutorials. The stone sits at 30-degrees azimuth and was measured to be 13.9 metres from the hubstone (45.6 feet). The very plausible codes of distance range from 45.36-feet to 46.08-feet. The codes of angle for alignments alighting across the stone range from 28.53-degrees to 30-degrees. Indeed, there were many important tutorials and mnemonic codes that could be built into this stone's position. If we consider that one code was 28.35-degrees, then this is lunar. The Khafre Pyramid was 15/16th the length of the Great Pyramid (756 feet ÷ 16 = 47.25 feet X 15 = 708.75 feet). Half the length of one side was, therefore 354.375 feet (there are 354.375-days in a lunar year). The sum of all 4-sides of the Khafre Pyramid was 2835 feet...which is also the length of the Octagon of Newark Ohio from the altar alcove to the extremity of the outermost gate position.

    Another angle code that was obligatory was 29.53125-degrees. Of course it was impossible to visually achieve anywhere near this degree of accuracy and the stones represented little more than mnemonic devices, where the refined values, which had been learned by rote and repetition, were symbolically represented in the positions of the stones. They were objects, the purpose of which was solely to jog the memory and to provide the tutor with a series of lessons in relation to each stone position. The 29.53125-degree code was, as stated, for remembering the duration of the lunar month under the lunisolar, Sabbatical Calendar system. The same value for the period of the moon is built into the Druidic "Calendar of Coligny" artefact of France. The 708.75 feet length of the Khafre Pyramid ÷ 24 = 29.53125 feet (the number of days in a lunar month...or 354.375-inches...the number of days in a lunar year). The Khafre Pyramid was built to the 3-4-5 triangle formula and the diagonal length up a face (hypotenuse) was 590.625 feet (which is 295.3125 feet X 2).

    Other angle codes related to this position are 30-degrees azimuth (1/12th part of the Sumerian/ Babylonian 360-degree system) or 30.24-degrees (inferring 1/2 of 1-minute of equatorial arc under the Great Pyramid's geodetic method, wherein the sum total of all 4-sides was 3024 feet).

    One of the distance codes was, undoubtedly, intended to convey 45.36 feet, which is 26.4 Egyptian Royal Cubits. The same distance was built, threshold to threshold, into the Crosshouse of Miringa te Kakara (Temple of the Four Winds) meeting house near Bennydale in the King County. In a mathematical sense, the 453.6 feet vertical height from the base of the Great Pyramid to the top surface of its altar floor, carried a simple coded method for remembering the size of the Earth. The sum of 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X1.2 = 24883.2-miles. If these are Greek miles of 5250 feet (6&7 number family) then that equates to 24741.81818-miles of 5280-feet (11 number family). The apparent formula for remembering this on the Great Pyramid was 453.6 ÷ 22 = 20.61818182 (the official measured length of an Egyptian Royal Cubit in inches). If 20.61818182 is multiplied by 1200 then the sum is 24741.81818...the number of miles of 5280 feet in the equatorial circumference of the Earth as found coded into the Great Pyramid's dimensions, where 6048 feet represented 1-minute of arc.

    Another distance code was, undoubtedly, 46.08 feet. This is an extension of the 11.52 code, used copiously in ancient calculation methodology, but mostly in navigation. One important way it was used was in refining the Sothic year of 365.25-days to achieve its accurate duration. From this a total of 11.52-minutes were deducted to render the year as 365.2420-days, which is the same value found upon the Mayan Calendar.

  4. This stone sat at 27.5-degrees and was measured to repose at 15.25 metres (50-feet) from the hubstone. The 27.5-degree value is part of an "11" series family of measurements, which offered an alternative method of navigation beyond the Greek "6&7" series family of measurements. The "11" series family included the League @ 16500 feet (3.125 British Miles), the Mile @ 5280 feet, the Furlong or Furrowlong @ 660 feet, the Chain @ 66 feet, the Rod or Perch @ 16.5 feet, the Fathom @ 5.5 feet (original fathom) and the Link @ 7.92-inches. A wonderful window of mathematical opportunity opens when an "11" series diameter is converted to a circle. The diameter will create a sexagesimal circle that is divisible by 360-degrees and this principle was at the basis of the 16500 feet League or 5280 feet mile, used in positional plotting at sea by ancient navigators. This second system of navigation is symbolically inferred within the dimensions of the Great Pyramid and, undoubtedly, was once marked into the circumnavigating paving slabs at the bottom of the pyramid. To use this system, the base length of the Great Pyramid would have been viewed as 756.25 feet instead of 756. This would mean that 1/2 a minute of equatorial arc (one circuit of the Great Pyramid) was viewed as being 3025 feet under the "11" system instead of 3024 feet under the "6&7" system. This also meant that the equatorial circumference was considered to be 24750-miles (of 5280 feet) when doing positional plotting by this method. The 27.5 value is a part of a mathematical progression that accentuates and identifies the values inherent within this navigational method, including the value describing 1-degree of arc (68.75-miles). The Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara fitted within a circle of 55-feet (27.5 X 2) through two wings to encode this navigational method, which survived in ancient Britain.

    The distance from the hubstone to this outer marker was, without doubt, intended to be 50.4 feet (1/2 a second of arc distance according to the Great Pyramid's literal geodetic system). Also being inferred in the distance were 50.433333 feet and 50.688 feet, which represented 1/2 a second of arc distance according to two other geodetic systems in use amongst ancient European society.

  5. This stone sits at 44-degrees and was measured to be 7.85 metres (25.75 feet) from the hubstone. The intended distance was, without doubt, 25.92-feet. At Stonehenge the Heel Stone's outer face sits 259.2-feet (intended design code) from the centre of the site. The duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes was factored, by ancient astronomer-mathematicians to be 25920-years (360 X 72), wherein the point of equinox was said to shift 1-degree every 72 years. This off-line drift necessitated changing the calendar day for the equinox periodically, such that all planting and harvesting occurred on the correct calendar days or that solar festivals were correctly timed to coincide with the true points of equinox, solstice or interim periods in-between.

    The azimuth angle, at 44-degrees, would provide a mathematical progression accentuating the numbers of the "11" series family of navigational values. The sum of 44-feet (8 ancient fathoms) is 1/120th of a British Standard Mile of 5280-feet and the "11" family of distance measurements date from remote antiquity.

  6. Centred on about 84-degrees and situated in a range between 15.4 metres to 9.8 metres from the hubstone there are the remnant positions of about 13 close proximity, moderately sized marker stones. Their distance codes would probably have been: 50.4 feet (1/2 a second of equatorial arc), 32.4 feet (rounded PHI and navigational progression), 45.36 feet (navigational), 36 feet (compass), 38.4 feet (navigational & 1152 progression), 39.6 feet ("11" series navigational using the mile of 5280 feet), 42 feet ("6&7" series navigation using the mile of 5250 feet), 34.56 (navigational and a progression related to the speed of the Earth's rotation), 42 feet again, but situated 18-degrees anticlockwise from its cousin marker, 45-feet (compass), 37.8 feet (navigation), 37.5 feet (compass), 39.6 feet again, but situated 5-degrees clockwise of its cousin marker.

    This compact area close to the hubstone offered a series of tutorials for initiates, who commenced their education on a micro site, then practised their new found skills in macro over a wider expanse of landscape. The open air university at Koru PA was very similar in principle, albeit on a less grandiose scale, to the ancient open air university at Avebury Henge in Southern England, where untold generations of astronomer-navigators learned their skills in remote antiquity (up until the time of the Roman invasion). Like at Avebury Henge, a close scrutiny of the landscape surrounding Koru PA would, undoubtedly, lead to identification of many outer markers that related back to the Koru PA hubstone and some of these would be found several miles removed. An ancient Waitaha oral tradition speaks of an alignment that runs from the top of Maunganui Bluff in Northland (where there was an ancient "school of learning") to the peak of Mt. Taranaki (which can be seen from atop Maunganui Bluff occasionally in very clear atmospheric conditions) The distance between the two points is 245.6 miles. Surprisingly, the return angle from the peak of Mt. Taranaki to Maunganui Bluff is very close to 354.375-degrees and would have been used for mnemonic reference to the duration of the lunar year of 354.375-days. The ancient Waitaha tradition states that when the alignment from Maunganui Bluff to the peak of Mt. Taranaki (across a wide expanse of ocean) hit land again and traversed the short expanse of terrain to the peak of the mountain, the line crossed over the most venerated ancient "school of learning" in the Taranaki Province. As it turns out, the alignment passes within 2.6-miles of the Koru PA hubstone and, undoubtedly, was within the perimeter of some of the outer surveying markers associated with the site.

  7. To be continued...

We have touched briefly upon some of the tutorials that were encoded into some stone positions at Koru PA's standing stone circle. There are about another fifty still decipherable positions, yet requiring comment. The values covered, thus far, are simply the much repeated values that are easily extractable from the world-wide distribution of standing stone circles, geometric earthworks or revered, ancient coded edifices like the pyramids of the Giza Plateau or the Parthenon of Athens, etc., etc.

As stated, the stones themselves acted as "memory devices" to trigger recall of a parcel of special scientific numbers. The standing stone circle acted in the capacity of a training ground or "school of learning", where the special astronomical-cycle or navigational and calendar numbers could be discussed and learned by rote and repetition. It was imperative that the numbers be handed down intact to each ensuing generation, as the concepts of civilisation, abundance, world-wide travel and ordered, functioning society were based on them.