NORMANTON DOWNS. One of the longest and most impressive groupings of mounds is at Normanton Downs and only about half of this set is seen in the above picture. As stated, an individual mound, across its expanse, could carry multiple or slightly different codes of length and angle if the opportunity was there to do so. This could mean the inclusion of several standing stone or sighting pit markers scattered across an individual mound, representing the resolving position from the distant hub. Here is a sampling of some of the codes of position and, thereby, ancient tutorials associated with the Normanton Downs set:

1. The distance is 11664' and the azimuth angle back to Durrington is 44.29687500 (4419/64ths) or 1/8th of 354.375 (lunar year in days).

The Roman foot was found to be 11.664 inches by John Greaves, professor of geometry, who in 1639 went to Rome specifically to ascertain the length of an ancient Roman foot. Greaves located a monument of Roman architect, Stalius Asper and measured bas relief instruments used by him in the first century A. D. Greaves concluded, after careful investigation, that the Roman foot, 'contained 1944 such parts as the English foot contains 2000'. This means a Roman foot of 11.664 inches.

The value is highly factorable and excellent for describing lunar intervals. It was also used in ancient capacities and the the Egyptian Theban volume was 11664 cubic inches.

EGYPTIAN CAPACITIES

1 Theban…..11664.00 cubic inches, equals:
10 Beshu…..1166.40 cubic inches, or
100 Honnu…116.64 cubic inches, or
400 Hon……29.16 cubic inches.

2. The distance onto the frontal section of the mound is 11812.5' and the return angle back to Durrington Walls is 44.55-degrees.

The length contains a lunar code and 118.125-days equates to four lunar months of 29.53125-days each.

The angle is navigational coding and the sum of 445500' would be 27 Ancient British leagues of 16500' each

2a. The selfsame vector also resolves to the rear section of the same mound @ 11880'.

This is also navigational and this distance across the Durrington Walls & environs landscape of 11880-feet would represent 1/11000th of the equatorial circumference under the 24750-mile ("11") assignment.

3. The distance to the eastern sector of this large mound is 11880' and the azimuth angle from Durrington Walls Henge is 125-degrees, for a return angle of 45-degrees.

The degree angle codes are pretty-much self explanatory, with 45-degrees representing 1/8th part of a 360-degree circle.

3a. The line carries on to resolve upon a mound further southwest @ 13068'.

The 24750-miles of 5280' equatorial circumference ("11" system) equates to 130680000'.

4. The centre section of this large mound carries at least 3 codes of length and one of angle. The lengths are: 11812.5', 11880' & 12000' to the southern rear of the mound. The return angle from the centre section to the hub of Durrington Walls is 45.36-degrees.

The vertical height of the Great Pyramid to the top of its flat-top floor was measured by Petrie to be within a tolerance of .71 of an inch off 453.6-feet. The length of the Great Pyramid @ 756' equates to 9072" or 4536" X 2. The sum of 2 Geomancer's miles (or 28000') X 4536 = 130636800' or the equatorial circumference of 24883.2 Greek miles.

5. The distance is 12250' @ 45.8333333-degrees.

The distance is 21/3rd Greek miles. The angle is navigational and the sum of 45. 833333' would be 1/360th of an ancient British league of 16500'. Under the system where one traveled a Greek mile of 5250-feet and converted that linear distance (diameter) into a circle, using PI @ 22/7 the circumference generated was 16500', where 1-degree of arc was 45.833333' or 550". This principle was very important when doing positional plotting and dead reckoning using sea-legs of travel in Greek miles. It was, thus, taught at this open-air university.

6. The distance is 12150' @ 46.08-degrees return.

The distance is lunar and navigational coding simultaneously and there would be 56 occurrences of 121.5-days (2916-hours) in the 6804-day duration of the lunar nutation cycle . There would also be 21 intervals of 121.5-days in the 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years) monitored alongside 7-solar years (2556.75-days) of the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar. Note also that there were 56-posts on the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge to facilitate the lunar count.

The degree angle (46.08-degrees) is navigational coding, based upon the quarter value 11.52 within a mathematical progression. At Stonehenge the outer length average of the lintels was 11.52' for a circumference (30 lintels) of 345.6'. The equatorial circumference of 24883.2-miles = 460.8-miles X 54.

7. The (tutorial) distance is 12370.90909090 (1237010/11ths) @ 46.28571430 (462/7ths).

The equatorial circumference @ 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 Greek miles of 5250' each (24883.2-miles) equates to 24741.818181818 British miles or 12370.909809090-miles X 2.

The return angle is navigational coding, reducing the 24883.2-mile circumference by 16ths, 32nds, 64ths 128ths, etc., then those divisions into 7ths.

It goes without saying that such tolerances were unachievable in any marked position on the mounds and would have to be deduced as the nearest conceivable value from the list of special numbers that applied to the local situation. The students were only learning strings of particular or unique factorable numbers and how to manipulate them for use in navigational and calendar calculations. Any value that fell outside of the standard set of mathematical progressions of factors was not included, but some lesser-use values would have been relegated to the fringe. In rare instances, the only individuals who could interpret the meaning of a position would have been the savant-tutors themselves, who would then use the otherwise obscure position to introduce a more difficult and refined mathematical principle. The idea was, obviously, to fully train and perhaps even over train the initiate in the manipulation of numbers, such that any and every calculation need in positional plotting or cyclic-astronomy and the calendar could be met. For some insights into just how refined the calendar calculations alone were, one only needs to look at the Druidic Calendar of Coligny.

8. The distance is 12441.6' and the angle is 48.21428571 (483/14ths) return.

The distance value is half of 24883.2 and, substituting feet for miles, represents half of the equatorial circumference of the Earth.

The return angle is both navigational and lunar, with each seventh value of the progression resolving to a recognisable key or foundation value.

9. The (tutorial) distance is 12304.6875' (1230411/16ths) and the angle is 226.8-degrees from the centre of Durrington Walls Henge.

The distance value is accentuating the lunar month and its divisions. The lunar month is 29.53125-days (2917/32nds) and 1/24th of the period is 1.23046875-days (159/256ths) or 2917/32nds hours, etc., breaking down into minutes and seconds of time.

The angle value provides a very important lunar and navigational number. The sum of 226.8 is half of 453.6 (already discussed). It's of significance that the Great Pyramid is 756' per side and that 3-side lengths = 2268'. It's also of significance that Herodotus was told by Egyptian priests that the Great Pyramid was 800' long. Although the Great Pyramid complies to many ancient kinds of "feet" or "cubits" in length (e.g.. 72 reeds, 440 Egyptian Royal Cubits, 360 Assyrian cubits, 720 Greek feet, etc., etc.), the "foot" spoken of by the priests would equate to 11.34" (half of 22.68"). By configuring the Great Pyramid to be 3200 of these lunar feet, ancient priests could very accurately track the lunar periods, especially in a 360-degree circle environment, broken down into 3200 divisions (the same system used in our compass readings).

This same measurement is found at Stonehenge, where the width of the Station Stone's Rectangle is 113.4'. A foot of 11.34"* would act as a very useful calculator of lunar cycle periods. For example: the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days = 6 periods of 1134-days. The 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years) tracked within the lunisolar calendar = 22.5 periods of 113.4-days (remember that 22.5-degrees represents 1/16th of a 360-degree circle), inferring simple use of a tracking device based upon a calibrated circle. Similarly, the lunar year of 354.375-days , broken down into hours (8505) is 75 periods of 113.4-hours or the lunar month in hours (708.75) is 6.25 periods of 113.4-hours.

*Footnote: It's interesting that the standard "rail-gauge" width (the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearing parallel rails that make up a single railway line) sits very close to 5 X 11.34". This width, officially 4' 81/2" and used by 60% of the world's railways, was first chosen by engineer, George Stephenson in 1845 and no-one knows quite what it was based upon. A small amount of side play, when setting the rails, was also incorporated, so as not to hedge or contain the train wheels too tightly and this extra spacing amounted to between quarter of an inch to half an inch, bringing the inner rail width comfortably within the range of 5 X 11.34". By consequence, The rail to rail centres sat very close to a Roman Pace of 58.32".

*Footnote 2: The ancient "Pied du Roi" (foot) of France (Gaul), in use up until the imposition of the inferior metric system in 1799, was 1.066666 British standard feet of 12-inches or 12.8". If this foot was used to measure the length of the Great Pyramid, then 756' ÷ 1.0666666 = 708.75. The design length of the Khafre Pyramid (15/16ths the length of the Great Pyramid) was 708.75 standard feet. Half of this value is 354.375 and in days that describes the duration of a lunar year to a very close tolerance. The Great Pyramid's length could, thereby, be read in an altogether different number system and relate to lunar calculations by use of the 12.8" rule preserved in France. Similarly, the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge was built to average 11.52' for the outer face of each lintel stone. This meant a circuit of 345.6 standard feet and, in miles, the sum of 345.6 would be 1/72nd of the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference. But in an alternative reading the circuit would produce 324 "Pied du Roi" of 1.0666666' each. and 324-years would equate to 1/80th of the 25920-year cycle of the Precession of the Equinoxes or 324-days would be 1/21st part of the 6804-day duration of the Lunar Nutation cycle, etc. Each measurement rule was a calculator in its own right.

These mentally-taxing methods, used in ancient England-Gaul-Scandinavia-Iberia-Germany, etc., to commit to memory the intricacies of navigational and cyclic astronomy sciences may seem too difficult for some modern researchers who have always enjoyed the use of electronic calculators, or, going back a couple of generations, slide-rules, etc. But, then again, what other avenues were available to ancient savants engaged in teaching student-navigators? For about 400-years the 28,000 lines of the Iliad and Odyssey were delivered orally by bards, who had to commit the ponderous, epic saga poem to memory. Thereafter it was written down and preserved for future (mentally-lazier?) generations to enjoy at their leisure, without the necessity of seeking out one of the walking repositories of the memorised information.

10. The tutorial distance is 12370.90909091 and the angle is 47.52-degrees return to Durrington Walls Henge.

Again, the half value for the equatorial circumference (24883.2 Greek miles rendered as 24741.181818182 British miles) is given.

The 47.52 value is a very important number related to navigation, when working with the British mile of 5280'. The sum of 47520' = 9 British miles.

11. The distance is 12441.6' and the angle is 48.21428571 (483/14ths).

The half value of 24883.2 is given and, with feet mnemonically representing miles, this distance would refer to half the equatorial circumference.

The angle value settles to very recognisable numbers, used in navigation and lunar calculations, with every seventh stage of the mathematical progression.

HEBREW SEPPHORIS LIQUID VOLUME.

1 Cor…….22394.88 cubic inches equals,
10 Bath….2239.488 cubic inches, or
60 Hin…..373.248 cubic inches, or
180 Cab…124.416 cubic inches, or
720 Log…31.104 cubic inches.

12. The distance is, again 12441.6' and the angle is 48.6-degrees return to Durrington Walls Henge centre.

The angle provides a very dynamic value much used in navigation and lunar calculations simultaneously. For example: The sum of 48.6-miles X 4 X 4 X 4 X 4 X 2 = 24883.2-miles. The half value of the ancient reed measurement was 5.25'* (1/1000th of a Greek mile) and an adept ancient savant, porting a calibrated half reed staff set out in inches, could work out precisely where the moon sat in relation to its cycle around the Earth by doing calculations on the staff. The sum of 486 X 5.25-days was 2551.5-days (the 7.2-lunar years monitored within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar alongside 7 solar years). In fact, the sum of 486 + 1 extra allotment of 5.25-days gave 2556.75-days (7-solar years). The length of the outer top frame of the Druidic Calendar of Coligny brass plaque is 4.86' (58.32" or 1 Roman Pace). All of these values were, of course, in use by the Druids and their much more ancient forebears for a few thousand years before there were any Romans. First glint of the sun, as observed from the centre of Stonehenge at the time if the summer solstice, occurs at 48.6-degrees azimuth.

* Footnote: It's interesting that this measurement (5.25' or 63") became the Irish "rail gauge" (the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearing parallel rails that make up a single railway line).

13. The distance is 12500' and the angle is 229.166666 (2291/6th) from Durrington Walls Henge.

The distance value produces a useful mathematical progression number used in navigation and compass calculations, etc.

The angle value is an expression of the equatorial circumference of the Earth under the "11" assignment, which set the circumference at 24750-miles. Under this assignment, one degree of arc was 68.75-miles or 22.9166666 (2211/12ths) X 3. This is the second half of the main Normanton Downs group of mounds, with several more situated nearby. Some of the apparent codes or tutorials related to the positions of these mounds, one of which is the famous Bush Barrow, include the following:

14. This large mound sits 12600' from the centre of Durrington Walls Henge at an intended return angle of 49.7664-degrees.

The distance is 2.4 Greek miles or 24 short stadia's of 525' each. It is also 1200 reeds or 12000 Greek feet.

BABYLONIAN-SUMERIAN SINGLE STANDARD.

1 Talent………453600 grains, equals:
60 Mina…….. @ 7560 grains, or:
3600 Shekel… @ 126 grains.

The sum of 4976.64-miles would be 1/5th of the 24883.2-mile circumference.

15. The tutorial distance is 12656.25' and the angle back to Durrington Walls is 50.4-degrees.

The distance code is lunar and the sum of 12.65625-days (1221/32nds) is two lunar weeks (1/28th of a lunar year).

The angle also provides a dynamic lunar value, much used for calculations within the lunar cycles. For example: The 6804-day lunar nutation cycle is 135 intervals of 50.4-days. The main function of this value is, however, navigational and under the geodetic assignment of 24883.2 Greek miles for the equatorial circumference of the Earth, the sum of 50.4' would equate to 1/2 of 1-second of arc (100.8').

16. The distance to the elongated rear section of this small mound appears to have been coded at 12757.5' with a return angle to Durrington Walls of 51.42857143-degrees (513/7ths).

The 12757.5 distance would be half of 25515' and, in days, this value would be 72 lunar years. An extension of the same vector to touch the outer edge of the next huge barrow would comply to 12800'.

The return angle is simply 360-degrees ÷ 7.

17. The distance is 12960' and the angle is 51.5625-degrees back to Durrington Walls.

The distance aspect codes the half-value for the duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes (25920-years or 360 X 72).

BABYLONIAN CAPACITY.

1 Archane…… 129600 cubic inches, equals:
6 Homer…… @ 21600 cubic inches, or
36 Artaba….. @ 3600 cubic inches, or
216 Sutu…… @ 600 cubic inches, or
2160 Qa……. @ 60 cubic inches.

The angle is navigational, as well as containing a code applicable to the middle-sized ("11" family) Egyptian Royal Cubit measurement. It's also reminiscent of the length (in reduced ratio) of Noah's (fabled?) Ark, which was supposed to be 300-cubits in length. If the Bible author was speaking of a vessel that was built in Egyptian Royal Cubits, then here are the possibilities:

1. The shortest Egyptian Royal Cubit (based upon the combined "6&7" number families) was 20.61818182" and 300 such cubits = 61855/11ths inches or 5155/11ths feet.

2. The middle sized Egyptian Royal Cubit (based upon the "11" number family) was 20.625" and 300 such cubits = 6187.5" or 515.625' (5155/8ths).

3. The largest Egyptian Royal Cubit was 20.736" (2092/125ths) and 300 of these would equate to 518.4'.

Under each of these 3 variable cubits, the equatorial circumference of the Earth was being coded (3 separate navigational methods in different number families) and so the numerical lengths of the cubits themselves had to be remembered precisely as whole numbers and fractions and never "rounded".

In consideration of this degree angle from Normanton Downs Barrows, it's probable that the intended angle was 51.5625-degrees, to encode tutorials related to the enlarged ratio values of 6187.5" or 515.625'. Under the inch reading, substituting inches for miles, the sum of 6187.5-miles would be a quarter of the distance around the equator or 90-degrees of arc (in a world configured to be 24750-miles of 5280' each). This ancient encoding system, found on edifices or structures elsewhere around the world, was for accurate positional plotting and dead reckoning at sea, using highly factorable numbers.

The same angle would also have been interpreted to (symbolically) mean 61855/11ths' and represent a quarter of a world that was 24741.1818182-miles (of 5280') in circumference (24883.2 Greek miles). This is the literal system is found on the Great Pyramid (756' long or 1/8th of 1-minute of equatorial arc).

The azimuth angle of 51.5625-degrees from the mound back to the centre of Durrington Walls Henge contains this kind of comprehensive tutorial related to the size of the Earth. Even something as simple as a single degree angle can carry a huge amount of scientific information, when elaborated-upon at-length by an adept tutor navigator-surveyor-astronomer.

18. The distance is 12960' and the return angle is 51.84-degrees.

The length, again, relates to half the duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes. The value can be used equally in mathematical progressions related to the equatorial size of the Earth and navigation.

The degree angle value is one of the most dynamic of all the numbers used in antiquity:

The slope angle of the Great Pyramid is 51.84-degrees. The azimuth angle bisecting the Octagon geometric earthworks complex at Newark, Ohio is 51.84-degrees. The area covered by the Great Pyramid is 5184 sq. reeds. In a world where the equatorial circumference is considered to be 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2-miles of 5280' each (24883.2), this equates to 51.84 X 480. The sum of 518.4', rendered in inches would be 6220.8" and if this value was considered to be miles, then the distance would be a quarter of the Earth's 24883.2-mile circumference. In navigation using the Greek mile for sea legs of traversal, 1-Greek mile (diameter) converts to 51840' using PI @ 1728/550 (3.141818182). The Precession of the Equinoxes endures for 25920-years (the factorable value used to describe it by ancient mathematician-astronomers), which is 51.84-years X 500. The value and factored expressions of the same occur in ancient Weights, Measures and Volumes.

GREEK VOLUMES…DRY.

1 Medimnus…3110.4 cubic inches, equals:
6 Hecteus…518.40 cubic inches, or
48 Choenix…64.80 cubic inches, or
192 Coytle…16.20 cubic inches, or
1152 Cyathus…2.70 cubic inches.

19. The distance is 13000' and the angle is 52-degrees.

Both values relate to the agrarian or peasant calendar, also known as the Sabbatical Calendar. To make things simple for farmers and the general population, a year would run for 13-months of 28-days each (364-days or 52 months). This count would remain in place for 7-solar years, alongside a lunar count of 7.2 lunar years. At the end of the period (Sabbatical Year) there would be a festival of 9-days (8.75), where the missing intercalary days were reinserted and everything would recommence with the count perfectly adjusted. At the same time, savants used a 12-count system for perfect accuracy and that more scientific approach, within the Sabbatical Calendar system, is found on the Druidic Calendar of Coligny brass plaque.

20. The distance is 12960' and the angle is 52.5-degrees.

The distance, once again, relates to the Precession of the Equinoxes and navigation, etc.

The angle relates to the so-called Greek miles (5250') and short stadia (525').

21. The distance is 12800' and the angle is 52.8-degrees.

The 128 value (64 X 2) is part of a mathematical progression that relates to navigation and the compass.

The angle, of course, relates to the mile of 5280-feet.

21b. The distance is 13000' (calendar) and the angle is 52.8-degrees (mile).

21c. The distance is 13333.33333' and the angle is 52.8-degrees.

The distance aspect divides decimal renditions into thirds. Example: 40000 ÷ 3 = 13333.33333'

22. The distance is 13333.33333' and the angle is 53.130-degrees.

The angle is found in all 3,4,5 triangles and is the slope angle of the Khafre Pyramid of Egypt.

23. The distances across this mound can be read equally as 13063.68', 13068' or 13138.3296 and the angle is 233.28-degrees from Durrington Walls Henge.

Each of the distance codes relates to readings of the equatorial circumference of the Earth in feet and would have been taught as precise numbers to initiates receiving tutorials on this mound.

a. Under the "6&7" navigational system of 24883.2 Greek miles, the Earth was 130636800' in circumference. This distance across the Salisbury Plains would, therefore, represent 1/10000th of the Earth's circumference.

b. Under the "11" navigational system of 24750 miles of 5280', the Earth was 130680000' in circumference. This distance across the Salisbury Plains would, therefore, represent 1/10000th of the Earth's circumference.

c. Under the "true" navigational system of 24883.2 miles of 5280', the Earth was 131383296' in circumference. This distance across the Salisbury Plains would, therefore, represent 1/10000th of the Earth's circumference.

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