The 5 black dots listed as A, B, C, D, & E, are stone balls seen and measured by Lothrop and Stone in 1948.

Lothrop writes:

'The principal feature was a mound measuring ca. 35 X 25 by 2 meters (115 X 85 X 6 1/2 feet). It was so big and massive that, instead of leveling it by bulldozer, a drainage ditch had been curved around its base (fig. 77).
There were five stone balls, one to the south of and four to the northwest. In spite of the fact that the latter are almost in line, we believe that all once had been placed on the mound and had been rolled to their present position, either purposely or as the result of failure of the retaining walls. Ball B (pl. VII, d) had the finest finish of any we observed and ranked at the top for rotundity (table II).'

Here are Lothrop's circumference measurements (in metres) and calculated estimations of diameters based upon circumferences.

In order to read the navigational coding built into the diameters and circumferences of these stone spheres, the dimensions have to be converted back to "inches". The British standard "inch" is not British at all, but represents the base increment shared by all of the Mediterranean and European cousin nations of remote antiquity for their "feet" or "cubits". Thus, an ancient Greek foot was 12.6-inches; a Hebrew Reed was 126-inches; an Assyrian "cubit" was two Greek feet or 25.2-inches, etc., etc.
Our western systems of chronology (the measurement of time as per 24-hours in a day, reducing to hours of sixty minutes and minutes of sixty seconds) or our method of measuring degree angles (as per 360-degrees, reducing to minutes and seconds of arc) have a direct pedigree back the very ancient Sumerian-Babylonian system.
At the same time, our measurement systems came from exactly the same source and all ancient cousin European nations shared the same integrated mathematical parcel, which was at the foundation of all their weights, measures, volumes, areas, degree-angles, chronology or calendar standards and astronomical sciences. Although different sizes or capacities of national preference existed between the cousin nations, all standards were in perfect "ratio" to each other and a simple calculation could convert one national standard for, say, a "talent"of weight or a "bushel" of capacity to another cousin nation's marketplace standard.


The measured circumference of this stone sphere converts fluidly to very slightly in excess of 9.54-feet and the stone contains an important navigational tutorial based upon 1/6th of 1-degree of arc for the equatorial circumference of the Earth.

To understand why it was essential to create so many perfectly (or near perfectly) round stones, one has to appreciate the difficulties encountered in ancient navigation at sea. It's all to do with linear distances traveled (diameters) being converted into circumferences. The linear distances for each leg of travel at sea placed the boat at constantly renewed positions as the voyage continued and forward progress was made. The circumference calculation that followed the completion of each "leg" and the beginning of a new one, told the navigator exactly where on the vast, featureless ocean the boat sat, as well as the degree angles to point of departure or destination (this is called positional plotting). Because the ancient mariners used sailing ships, fully at the mercy of the wind, each voyage was a series of staggered "tacks" on the available wind. It was imperative that the navigator stay fully informed about the boat's exact position, either on first-time exploratory missions or repetitive voyages back and forth to known destinations, as any dereliction of duty in this regard could spell disaster for the ship, its crew and precious cargo.

Before any "positional plotting" was possible, the size of the Earth had to be known with good relative accuracy and a mathematical system had to exist for grid referencing the Earth into latitude and longitude sectors. The apparent function of Stone Sphere A, Farm 1, Section 29, was to provide a tutorial in this regard. Here's how it worked:

There was a third system that gave an exact or true reading of the equatorial circumference as 24883.2-miles of 5280 feet each. This reading was only 18.8-miles different to the accepted circumference that we use today (24902-miles). Under this system the circumference of Stone Sphere A would have been viewed as 115.2-inches or about .7 of an inch larger than Lothrop's circumference measurement of 114.5-inches. The evidence would suggest that Lothrop worked in feet and inches, which, as an American was his natural medium or standard. It would seem that he has also "rounded" his measurements to the nearest half inch. He has then converted these values into metric renditions, resulting in complex-looking or cumbersome metric circumference readings appearing in his report, such as 2.9083 metres for this sphere.


Lothrop renders this circumference as 3.5814 metres, which, again is a complex-looking or cumbersome metric reading, but in feet and inches converts fluidly to 11-feet & 9-inches (11.75-feet) or 141-inches. This stone sphere contains very important navigational and lunar tutorials in the interpretation of two close-proximity circumference readings and associated codes. Lothrop's average is 141.322-inches


With stones C, D & E Lothrop only gives diameter values.

Stone "C" equates to 3.5-feet diameter for a circumference of 11-feet or 132-inches. The sum of 11-feet would be 1/480th of a mile and 1320-feet would be 1/4th of a mile.

Another tutorial that would, conceivably, have been associated with this stone is a circumference read as 131.25-inches, which would have provided a lunar and navigational code of tremendous importance.


Lothrop measured this diameter to be 3.125-feet (37.5-inches), which is a dynamic ancient code or incremental value that was very important to navigation. When this is converted by PI @ 22/7ths to a circumference, the result would be so close to 9.84375-feet to be visually undetectable. The value is a strong lunar code and 1/3rd part of a lunar month would be 9.84375-days (9 & 27/32nds). The circumference equated to 118.125-inches, which in days would be four lunar months to a tolerance of under four minutes. The Khafre Pyramid of Egypt was built according to a 3,4,5 triangle method (used by builders and structural engineers since time immemorial), based upon an increment of 118.125-feet. Therefore, half its base length is 354.375-feet (118.125 X 3 ... note: a lunar year is 354.375-days); Its vertical height is 472.5-feet (118.125-feet X 4) and its diagonal face length is 59.0625-feet (118.125-feet X 5).
The circumference code built into this stone sphere offered up a mathematical progression from which all of the lunar cycle information could be calculated by simple ratio. The lunar month was 1/4th of 118.125. The lunar year was 3 X 118.125. The 2551.5-day count for the lunar period within the lunisor Sabbatical calendar was 118.125 X 21.6 and the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle was 118.125 X 57.6.

The so-called Aztec Calendar or Sunstone, dug up on December 17th 1760 in Mexico City during renovations to a cathedral. It has an official diameter of 3.60 metres, which measurement is stated in scientific publications like National Geopgraphic Magazine. The sum of 3.60 metres equals 11.8125-feet to a tolerance of about 1/56th of an inch (less than half a milimetre). The circumference, using PI @ 22/7ths , is 37.125-feet or 445.5-inches, which is a strong navigational code when viewing the Earth's equatorial circumference as 24750-miles.


The circumference of this stone sphere complies to 10.8-feet, to a tolerance of about 1/15th of an inch and this value is a dynamic ancient code, much used for both navigational and lunar calculations, as well as for the duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes. The progression goes:

10.8, 21.6 (note: the sun spends 2160-years in each house of the zodiac during the Precession of the Equinoxes), 32.4, 43.2, 54, 68.4, 75.6 (note: the Great Pyramid is 756-feet long), 86.4, 97.2, 108, 118.8, 129.6 (note: half the period of the Precession of the Equinoxes is 12960-years), etc.