We'll now deal with the coded values that flow downward through the innermost diamond. As always the circle radii values listed and drawn are determined precisely in AutoCAD, according to British Standard inches. Here are the apparent codes:

Some of these positions are dual coded and the user of the memory device would automatically associate 1.575 with 1.5708 simultaneously. The 1.575 progression was integral to the Greek measurement system (as a rounded form of PI), but is also found on the inner rim of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge. The Sarsen Circle inner circumference can be dual read as 315 feet (1/2 stadia) or 314.16 feet (a PI reading based upon 100 feet diameter). Similarly, the 1.62 value, found within many ancient structures from Egypt to Britain (as elsewhere), is simply a rounded form of PHI and can be dual read (literally or symbolically) as 1.62 or 1.6180339. The Clandon Barrow or Bush Barrow lozenge devices acted as memory triggers for the recall of numerous codes, the precise values of which had been (at some epoch) calculated on an abacus and then committed to memory. A raft of very essential (traditional) mathematical progressions was available for every astronomical, navigational and calendar calculation requirement, based upon unchanging constants within celestial cycles or the dimensions of the Earth.

We will now consider the bottom quadrant of the innermost diamond and the coded values inscribed into stations expanding upward across the diamond. The circles displayed comply to the exact British Standard inch radii values listed below:

The result of of combining the inward running circle geometry, top and bottom, showing the lozenge turned 90-degrees anticlockwise.

The "all in" circle geometry related to the codes set out only within the centre diamond of the Clandon Barrow Lozenge (as listed). This is indicative of the amount of encoding that exists within the lozenge and the large amount yet to be identified within more extended station positions.


In consideration of the way circle geometry was traditionally used for profound scientific coding in ancient Britain, is it any wonder that the insignia adopted by the Royal Air Force during W.W.II was a "bulls-eye", made up of diminishing circles? The Folkton Drums artefacts also display the "Union Jack" flag, which became the flag of Southern England. The Union Jack, made up of the "Grand Cross", with the thinner "Cross of Set" and the "PHI vectors" (which became known as the "Saint Andrew's Cross") was incorporated into the flags of many countries. These included the flags of New Zealand, Australia and Canada (which later swapped over to a "Maple Leaf" insignia). The Union Jack design is a part of "out of Egypt" geometry and is an abbreviated representation of more complex star and cross pattern overlays. The overlay system, incorporating an "8" pointed star, "6" pointed star, "12" pointed star, Grand cross, thin cross, overlaying rectangles and PHI vectors, constituted an important part of the mnemonic coding system for astronomy. It was incorporated, either wholly or partially, into many ancient standing stone circles, ground geometry systems (such as at Rennes Le Chateau in Southern France) or ancient coded community buildings (such as The Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand). Let's briefly touch upon one aspect of this "out of Egypt" geometry, which became the St. Andrew's Cross, depicted in the central diamond of the Clandon Barrow Lozenge.... and, equally, upon the Folkton Drums.

The intended, coded diameter of the circle shown was 1.701 inches. This is a lunar code and there are 4 X 1701 days in the lunar nutation cycle, anciently calibrated to endure for 6804 days (major standstill of the moon to major standstill of the moon). The true period is 6798.36 days (18.613 years), but this value will not break down within a mathematical progression, so 6804 days was used by ancient astronomers to describe the cycle mathematically. This numerical description is clearly encoded into the dimensions of the Khafre Pyramid of the Giza Plateau.

The lozenge end points (through its overall length) were set to 270 degrees and 90 degrees, respectively, in AutoCAD. This was for the purpose of ascertaining if there were significant degree angle readings in the central diamond, or along the outer edges of the lozenge. The vectors shown in the central, diagonally lying cross are at: 51.84 to 131.04 and 231.84 to 311.04 degrees, respectively. One set of vectors is an expressions of the degree angle 51.84-degrees (the slope angle of the Great Pyramid). The other vector is an expression of 311.04-degrees and codes the true size of the Earth (31104-miles = 45-degrees of equatorial arc for the true size of the Earth, anciently fixed at 24883.2-miles or 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2-miles. These two diagonally lying vectors form a St. Andrew's Cross in the centre of the lozenge. The 51.84-degree & 311.04-degree angle lines, which were introduced very precisely within the exacting confines of AutoCAD, perfectly cover the lines inscribed by the ancient artisan.

The 51.84 number was used copiously in ancient navigation. When one travels an ancient English league of 16500 feet the circumference generated from that diameter is 51840 feet (using the navigational rendition of PI @ 3.141818182). The square footage of the 4 sides of the Great Pyramid (no capstone) plus the base it occupies is 51.845 Egyptian Pyramid acres of 28800 square feet each (identified from statements made by Herodotus). The area the Great Pyramid occupies at its base is 5184 square reeds (of 10.5 feet square each). The azimuth angle from the altar at the Octagon of Newark, Ohio, earth embankment complex, through the Avenue and out the extremity gate, is 51.84 degrees. One five hundredth part of the duration period for the Precession of the Equinoxes (25920 years) is 51.84 years, etc.

In the picture above the red line is, as stated, set at an angle of 51.84 degrees around from north (top). The blue line runs up to 311.04-degrees around from north. 311.04-degrees minus 51.84-degrees = 259.2-degrees. The Heel stone outer face at Stonehenge sits 259.2 feet from site centre at an angle of 51.84-degrees to its south facing side. The sum of 311.04-degrees is 360-degrees minus 48.96-degrees. If the value of 48.96-degrees is added to 51.84-degrees, then the total is 100.8-degrees. The value of 100.8 feet was 1 second of Earth equatorial arc under the Great Pyramid "6&7" geodetic assignment, which sized the Earth to 3024 X 43200 feet (or 130636800 feet...24741.81818-miles). At Stonehenge's Sarsen Circle inner rim one of the cross measurements between lintels was 100.8 feet, coding 1-second of arc.


All of the circles shown provide specialised ratios, such that the astronomer using the lozenge memory device could calculate periods of time within the 6804 day lunar nutation cycle or the Sabbatical Calendar. The defining circle for this process is the magenta one, which sweeps to the top and bottom of the diamond. It's diameter is 1.701 inches, in homage to 1701 days, or a quarter of the the moon's cycle. Here are the diameters of the other circles, each of which sweep to touch a pattern line in one quadrant or another around the diamond:

The Khafre Pyramid (pyramid of the Moon) was built to a 3,4,5 triangle formula, wherein its dimensions were fluidly divisible by 7 and its side angle was 53.13010235-degrees (opposing angle 36.86989765-degrees). The lower right external diagonal line of the inner diamond lies on an angle of 53.13010235 (red line). The line is 1.4 inches long.


The width of the central diamond is 1.701 inches and that is a dynamic lunar code associated with the lunar nutation cycle. A series of diminishing circles within the lozenge then provide ratios for dividing up the cycle into convenient lesser values.

The length of the inner diamond is dual coded to be 2.3328 inches and 2.333333 inches simultaneously. When read as 2.3328 inches the value is a lunar code and can be, similarly, subjected to ratio reductions, like the width of 1.701, to produce very useful lunar values. Also, the lunar nutation cycle of 6804 days or the 2551.5 day period of the moon (7.2 lunar years), used for calibration within the Sabbatical Calendar system, can be further rendered in useful values by subjecting them to 1.166666 reductions or increases (2.33333 ÷ 2 = 1.166666).

Because of the versatility of the 1.1664 or 1.166666 numbers, they were very widely used in antiquity as conversion ratios. The Roman foot was 11.664 inches and 11.66666 inches simultaneously. The Roman Pace was 58.32 inches and 58.333333 inches simultaneously. It's worthy to note that the Calendar of Coligny, mentioned above, was fabricated to be 58.32 inches long, carrying the 58.33333 inch code simultaneously. The Royal Cubits of antiquity had "common" counterparts that were 1.166666 in ratio less. The Romans, with their foot of 11.66666 inches were, quite obviously, using a measurement of 10 inches (1.166666 less) for overland distance calibration.

Researchers are encouraged to subject the length aspect (2.3328 or 2.33333 inches) of the inner diamond to the same scrutiny as the width aspect (1.701 inches) and extract, then experiment with, the values derived. It will be seen that very useful mathematical progressions are created that relate to lunar work or more general overland distance calculations.


The width of 1.701 inches X 2.3328 inches = 3.9680928 square inches for the area of the innermost diamond. Alternatively, 1.701 inches X 2.3333333 inches = 3.969 square inches. If these values (in expanded form for convenience) are subjected to division by significant lunar numbers, then here are the results:

Similarly, the width or length aspects could be multiplied by the diameters of the inner circles (including PHI or rounded PHI values) to achieve very useful numbers and ratios. With regards to the inner circle diameters, the main preoccupation of the lozenge's user would be to subject numbers like 144, 126, etc., to 1.1666666 increases or decreases, in line with what was happening between "Royal" and "common" cubit measurements of antiquity.

Each of the diamond compartments within the greater lozenges (Clandon or Bush Barrow) can be similarly assessed, in the same vein, as that done above. It will be found that both lozenges have many layers of coding and are very sophisticated, versatile, scientific mnemonic devices.

The central diamond section of the Clandon Barrow Lozenge has multiples of (slightly expanded) scale codes related to the Great Pyramid's dimensions or the equatorial size of the Earth. We'll discuss these as we proceed and find out what the extractable numbers mean within the ancient astronomical/ navigational coding system.