Mound 19 sits 1666.66666' from Monk's Mound hub at an azimuth angle of 77-degrees. In any 3,4,5 triangle the shortest side will be in a ratio of 1 : 1.666666 to the longest or hypotenuse side. A mathematical progression based upon 1.66666 (12/3rds or 5 ÷ 3) will produce many useful navigational and lunar numbers. The same mound position would have been dual read as 1650' (100 rods) or 1/10th of a league.

The azimuth angle @ 77-degrees relates to the "11" system of navigation and the sum of 77' would be 14 fathoms of 5.5' each.

Mound 20 sits 1920' from the hub position on Monk's Mound at an azimuth angle of 79.2-degrees. A mathematical progression based upon 192 will generate a string of very important navigational, lunar and precessional numbers. There would be 135 intervals of 1920-years in the 25920-year duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes. The East to West width of the Stonehenge site is 384' (192' X 2). The sum of 1.92 Greek miles (10080') = 1/36th of 1-degree of arc for a world configured to be 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 Greek miles in circumference. Therefore 1.92-miles X 36 X 360 = 24883.2.

The degree angle to Mound 20 relates to the diameter of the Earth (7920-miles).

It must be reiterated: Ancient mathematicians & navigators, etc., had to rely on memory, with everything learned by rote, repetition, cadence rhythms& poetry, stories containing countable elements, etc. Even Julius Caesar, in writing about the late-era Druidic teachers of his day said:

'They do not think it proper to commit these utterances to writing, although in all other matters and in their public and private accounts they make use of Greek characters. I believe that they have adopted the practice for two reasons- that they do not wish the rule to become common property, nor those who learn the rule to rely on writing and so neglect the cultivation of memory; and, in fact, it does usually happen that the assistance of writing tends to relax the diligence of the student and the action of memory...They also lecture on the stars in their motion, the magnitude of the Earth and its divisions, on natural history, on the power and government of God; and instruct the youth in these subjects' (see De Ballo Gallico, VII, 15, 16.).

Mound 21 sits 2062.5' from Monk's Mound hub at an azimuth angle of 81-degrees. In a second reading, the return angle was 261.36-degrees and related to the equatorial circumference of the Earth.

This distance is 24750" or 1200 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.625" each. The distance would also have been read according to two other types of Egyptian Royal Cubits as well. The Egyptian Royal Cubits were used universally by the cousin nations of antiquity as mnemonic devices for remembering the equatorial circumference of the Earth under three number families or readings.

1. To find the true design length of the "6&7" ERC, simple divide the length of the Great Pyramid of Egypt by 440. Therefore: 756' (9072") ÷ 440 = 20.61818182" (2034/55ths). An example of this exact ERC can be found in the Turin Museum. To find the exact circumference of the Earth that this cubit referred to, simply multiply its length by 1200 and read the result in miles of 5280'. Therefore: 20.61818182 X 1200 = 24741.8181818 miles of 5280' each or 130636800'. If this distance is read as Greek miles of 5250', then the result is 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 (24883.2 Greek miles). This was the literal geodetic, Earth navigational system built into the base dimensions of the Great Pyramid.

2. But another, very close proximity navigational system (based upon increases of the number 11) was also built into the base dimensions of the Great Pyramid and, undoubtedly, marked in the stone slab paving at the corners of the pyramid. All that ancient mathematicians-navigators had to do was increase the base lengths of the pyramid from 756' to 756.25' (3") and they had at their disposal a whole new, very easy to manipulate way of navigating and doing positional plotting calculations at sea.

Under this system the ERC was calculated as 756.25' (9075") ÷ 440 = 20.625" (205/8ths). To find the exact circumference of the Earth that this cubit referred to, simply multiply its length by 1200 and read the result in miles of 5280'. Therefore: 20.625 X 1200 = 24750. The existence of the 20.625 inch Royal Cubit is confirmed by the careful measurements of Sir William Flinders Petrie in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid. Petrie concluded that the room was built according to a cubit of 20.620 inches, plus or minus .005 of an inch. The upper scale of his estimate is, therefore, 20.625 inches (see The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, by Sir William Flinders Petrie).

3. But the ancient scientists knew the Earth was marginally larger that these two very convenient navigational systems configured it to be, so devised an ERC that better described (in factorable numbers) the Earth's true equatorial circumference. The existence of the 20.736 inch cubit is confirmed by the paving slab widths at the base of the Great Pyramid, which comply to 20 X 1.728 feet (20.736") or 34.56 feet overall. Sir William Flinders Petrie also identified this particular cubit in his measurement of the coffer in the Khafre Pyramid, wherein it was 5 X 20.736" long or 103.68-inches overall.

To find the "true" circumference of the Earth, as referred to by this cubit, simply multiply its length by 1200 and read the result in miles of 5280'. Therefore 20.736 inches X 1200 = 24883.2 (only 18.8-miles short of the official value we use today).

The primary function of Mound 21 was to encode mathematical principles that related to the size of the Earth under three geodetic systems.

The angle to the mound is 81-degrees and this was a highly important value in ancient calculations (9 X 9). The 6804-day lunar nutation cycle endures for 84 X 81-days. The value (in double form as 162) was used as a rounded form of the PHI ratio (1: 1.62). The Great Pyramid @ 9072" long was 5600 "rounded PHI" inches in length. This meant that the Great Pyramid's dimensions could be symbolically read according to the PHI formula or in PHI inches (1" X 1.6180339). The half-PHI value (.80901695) was often used in calculations on the British standing stone circles especially, where rings diminish in size according to a PHI or half-PHI ratio reduction.

A return angle from this mound could be read as 261.36-degrees. In the 130680000' navigational reading of the Earth's circumference, the sum of 26136' would be 1/5000th part.

The very sad situation about the Cahokia Mounds is that, what wasn't eradicated by ploughing and the mining of soil to fill holes, finally gave way to bulldozers flattening land for subdivisions and housing. These are the known, former spots where mounds 22-26 once stood in all their glory, each a repository of special scientific information that had great value to ancient society which laboriously built these sentinels of codes.

Mound 22. This mound sits 2268' from the hub position atop Monk's Mound at an azimuth angle of 80.901695-degrees. The distance equates to 3-side lengths of the Great Pyramid and is 3/8ths of 1-minute (6048') of equatorial arc.

The degree angle is in homage to the half value of the PHI ratio (.80901695). The PHI ratio, its reciprocal value and half value were essential knowledge to ancient civilisations and PHI relationships were built into many ancient edifices, like the Great Pyramid of Egypt:

If one uses simple trigonometry to work out the diagonal side length of the full pyramid, including the theoretical, non-existent capstone, the length to the centre apex would be (Adj. ÷ 51.84 Cos.) = 611.7894615 feet.
Alternatively, if one used a PHI method of Adj. (378 feet) X PHI (1.6180339) = 611.6168142 feet.
It will be observed that the calculated PHI length is only about 2 inches less than the length achieved by straight trigonometry. The ancient astronomer/ mathematicians were coding a PHI related angle for the Great Pyramid simultaneously to the standard angle of 51.84-degrees. The whole edifice was designed to clearly code PHI relationships. For example:

Let's consider the Great Pyramid on the basis of PHI and the ratio relationship (in Egyptian pyramid acres identified from the writings of Herodotus) between the 4 faces, compared to the ground area that the Great Pyramid covers.
The surface area of each face of the theoretical full pyramid, complete with a (symbolic) pointed capstone, = 611.6168142 feet of side length X 378 feet (1/2 the base length) = 231191.11558 square feet.

Because there are 4 faces, their combined square footage amounts to 924764.6231 square feet.
The base area measured 756 feet X 756 feet or 571536 square feet. A perfect PHI relationship exists between this (symbolic capstone included) total side area and that of the base area: 924764.6231 sq. feet ÷ 571536 sq. feet = 1.6180339 (PHI).

Mound 23 sits a coded distance of 2304' out from the hub position atop Monk's Mound at an azimuth angle of 75.6-degrees. Both in distance and angle the coding is navigational. As mentioned, the distance of 2304' would equate to 1/56700th (strong lunar value) of the Earth's circumference and 2304 is a part of the much used 1152 mathematical progression. The angle of 75.6-degrees is in homage to the 756' length of the Great Pyramid and a mathematical progression based on this will generate all of the essential navigational numbers for the "6&7" geodetic system of navigation.

Mound 24 sits 2430' from the hub position atop Monk's Mound at a return angle of 261.36-degrees. A mathematical progression based upon 243 will generate many very useful lunar and navigational numbers. For example, the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle is 28 periods of 243-days. The 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years) tracked alongside 2556.75-days (7-solar years) in the lunisolar Sabbatical calendar is 10.5 periods of 243-days. The Roman mile @ 4860' (5000 Roman feet of 11.664") = 2430' X 2 ... in other words this distance at Cahokia in Illinois is half a (so-called) Roman mile, although the length crops up time & time again between markers in Britain, laid out in circa 3000 BC.

The return angle, as mentioned, relates to the equatorial circumference of the Earth.

Mound 25 contains dynamic codes of position in both its distance out from Monk's Mound hub and its angle. It sits 2688' out at 82.5-degrees for a return angle of 262.5-degrees. The sum of 2688' would be 1/48600th of the 130636800' circumference of the Earth. In other words, under this calibration, the world would be either 24883.2-Greek miles or 26880 Roman miles in circumference.

The outrunning angle of 82.5-degrees is navigational coding in the "11" system and 8250' would be half a league of 16500'. Similarly, the sum of 82.5' (15 ancient fathoms) would be 1/64th of a mile of 5280'. In a clever switching of roles, the same angle, 180-degrees opposed, equals 262.5-degrees and this relates directly to the Greek mile of 5250'. Half a Greek mile is 2625'. The value 262.5 is tremendously useful in lunar cycle counts and the 2551.5-day lunar period counted within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar was set to 486 X 5.25-days or 972 X 2.625-days (63-hours).

Again, ancient astronomer-surveyor-navigators memorised and understood how to manipulate many mathematical progressions and could, obviously, do calculations very easily in their heads. Ancient navigators on ships were watching the tension in the sails, how well the boat was lifting and planing, how much wind drift, side slap or current drag the hull was subjected to, then calculating speed through the water and distance covered on that degree angle, before assigning the helmsman a new heading across the leyline. At the end of each sea leg, the navigator would then mark on the chart the boat's position in the ocean, based upon a few devices like sand clocks, a loadstone float, instruments to measure star angles .... and a lot of mental arithmetic.

Mound 26 sits 3024' out from the centre hub position of Monk's Mound at an azimuth angle of 84-degrees. The Great Pyramid @ 756' per side is 3024' for one complete circumnavigation (half a minute of equatorial arc). The degree angle value is dynamic and a mathematical progression founded upon 84 will generate all of the important navigational numbers for the "6&7" system (84 is 2 X 42 or 2 X 6 X 7). For example: 1-minute of equatorial arc (6048') = 84 X 72', etc.

The 180-degrees opposed angle is 264-degrees and this is a dynamic value related to the 5280' (11 system) mile (2640' X 2 = 5280'). Again, a mathematical progression based upon 264 generates the essential values of the "11" geodetic system.

Mound 27 sits within a residential area, with 3 houses occupying parts of its position, whereas mounds 28 & 29 sit in an adjacent field. Two codes of distance (marked by small circles) are shown for each mound.

Mound 27 is centrally coded to sit 2916' from Monk's Mound hub @ a return angle of 275-degrees. The 2916' coding is navigational and also equates to 3000 Roman feet of 11.664" each or 600 Roman Paces of 58.32" each. This distance would also be 3/5ths of a Roman mile of 4860'. The 2916 value, placed in a mathematical progression, will ultimately lead to the number 130636800 ... the number of feet in the 24883.2 Greek mile equatorial circumference. Along the way, the mathematical progression will generate values like 11664 (the number of cubic inches in an Egyptian Theban volume) or 933120, the number of grains in the Sumerian-Babylonian Royal Double Talent of weight. This progression, stemming from 2916 or divisions thereof, is incredibly old and features amongst the most ancient "Weights Measures & Volumes" standards of antiquity.

A second reading slightly beyond the mound's centre is 2953.125'. This coding related to the 29.53125-days in a lunar month. Ancient astronomers generated this accurate figure for describing the lunar month (to within 1-minute of time) as 1890 ÷ 64 = 29.53125 (2917/32nds).

The return angle of 275-degrees is navigational and the sum of 2750' would be 1/6th of an ancient English league of 16500', whereas 2750-miles would be 1/9th of the 24750-mile equatorial circumference under the "11" navigational system.

Mound 28 sits 2520' from the hub atop Monk's Mound at an azimuth angle of 100.8-degrees. This distance is 2400 Greek feet of 12.6" each or 1200 Assyrian cubits of 25.2" each. The Great Pyramid, with a base side length of 756', was 252' X 3 long. The distance of 2520' is 25 seconds of arc (100.8') for a world configured to be 24883.2 Greek miles in circumference and so the degree angle in this coding is a perfect reflection of the length.

A second reading of the length onto a position just forward of centre of mound 28 would generate a distance of 2551.5'. Counts within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar monitored 7.2 lunar years (2551.5-days) alongside 7 solar years (2556.75-days). When the solar count began at the Summer Solstice and full Moon conjunction, ancient priests waited until the 6th day thereafter to commence the lunar count, such that both counts would end on the same day 2551.5-days thereafter. In Druidic times, the lunar count started when mistletoe was culled from a venerable Oak tree using a golden sickle.

Mound 29 sits 2475' from the hub position atop Monk's Mound and shares the same azimuth angle as mound 27 (275-degrees return). The distance is in homage to the 24750-mile equatorial circumference, of which 275-miles (reflected in the degree angle) would be a 1/90th division.

Just slightly forward of the foregoing position, the length is 2488.32' and this falls comfortably onto the mound. The coding is, of course, in homage to the 24883.2-mile circumference of the Earth. Mound 29 would have been used for major tutorials related to the equatorial circumference of the Earth under 3 systems ("6&7". "11" & "true").

Mound 30 has disappeared under a large industrial complex, but its former position has been accurately logged on the UWM map. Its centre region sat a coded distance of 1701' from the hub position atop Monk's Mound @ an azimuth angle of 100-degrees.

Mound 30 codes the quarter period of the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle. This particular lunar cycle was very important to ancient societies, as the Moon, with its immense gravitational tug on the Earth's atmosphere is the greatest single determinant of weather. This cycle of the Moon is comparable to the Sun's annual cycle, where it moves down the horizon between Winter Solstice to Summer Solstice. With the Moon, however, moving to the extreme North and South positions takes much longer (6804-days). Ancient mariners had to remain aware of how the Moon sat in comparison to the rotating Earth, as the Earth made its annual journey around the Sun. If the Moon was badly positioned (a bad Moon), then severe storms could be expected and certain seas were too dangerous to venture into. Farmers had to be equally aware of the Moon's position and it's ability to bring heavy seasonal rains, late & early frosts (that destroyed newly planted crops or the final harvest) or droughts, etc. It is for this reason that ancient astronomers maintained very accurate lunisolar calendars, tracking the positions of both the Sun & Moon on a daily basis.

Stone disc (e) in the above picture (found at Moundsville, Alabama) was calibrated to follow the 1701-day quarter period of the lunar nutation cycle in 100-day increments (+ 1-day). The half cycle @ 3402-days is encoded into Khafre Pyramid of Egypt, the diameter of the southern ring at Avebury Henge in England and the diameter of Ring o' Brodgar in the Orkney Islands of Scotland.

The 100-degrees azimuth angle to this position is self-explanatory, but an angle of 100.8-degrees (coding 1-second of equatorial arc in feet) would also have been included in tutorials associated with this mound's position.

Mound 31 has suffered much the same indignity as mound 30 and has disappeared under an industrial complex. It's centre position sits 1512' from the hub on Monk's Mound at an azimuth angle of 101.25-degrees. In the above picture of stone discs located in the North American mounds, discs a & b could have been read as 15 X 100.8' = 1512' or 1/4th of 1-minute of equatorial arc. In an age when there were no electronic calculators, memory devices like the stone discs were valuable and useful tools for remembering and practicing one's cyclic "times-tables".

The degree angle to this mound is strong lunar coding and there would be 35 periods of 10.125-days (101/8th) in a lunar year of 354.375-days. Stone disc (i) in the above picture would have been useful for following the lunar cycles in "7" based progressions and a lunar year could be read as 7 X 50.625-days.

Mound 32 sits 1555.2' from the hub position on Monk's mound at an azimuth angle of 91.3125-degrees (915/16ths). The distance aspect is navigational and the sum of 1555.2-miles would be 1/16th of the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference.

The degree angle relates to the duration of the solar year, of which 91.3125-days is the quarter period.

The ancient moundbuilders seem to have created a "V" trough between mounds 32 & 33, which gave them a perfect gunsight-type fix on true East (90-degrees). The base of the trough sits 1584' from the hub position atop Monk's Mound and the sum of 1584-miles would be 1/5th of the 7920-mile diameter of the Earth.

Mound 33 sits 1680' from the hub on Monk's Mound @ an azimuth angle of 88-degrees.

The value of 168 is strong navigational coding and the sum of 168' would be 1/36th of 1-minute of equatorial arc (6048'). A mathematical progression based upon 168 will generate essential navigational numbers. This distance at Cahokia (1680') is 1/4th of an ancient Irish mile (6720').

The 88-degrees azimuth is navigational coding according to the "11" system and 88' is 1/60th of a mile.

Mound 34 sits 1562.5' from the hub atop Monk's Mound @ 82.5-degrees. A mathematical progression based upon 156.25 will generate many useful navigational numbers in the "11" series. For example: The division of 1-degree of arc for a world configured to be 24750-miles (of 5280') in circumference is 68.75-miles. A 1/44th division of 68.75-miles is 1.5626-miles or 8250'. Remember the degree angle out to this mound is 82.5-degrees. The return angle (180-degrees opposed) is 262.5-degrees, which is strong navigational coding and lunar coding simultaneously. A Greek mile of 5250' is 2 X 2625'.

Mound 35 sits 1280' from the hub atop Monk's Mound @ an azimuth angle of 80-degrees. The value 128 (64 X 2) had strong-use applications in calendar and compass readings. The ancient Druidic brass plaque called the Calendar of Coligny (a parapegma board for tracking both the Sun and Moon on a daily basis) is made up of 128 divisions or boxes. The 360-degree compass reduces in 8ths, 16ths, 32nds, etc. The degree angle out to this mound (80-degrees) accentuates this use of 8. The ancient chessboard of Egypt (64 squares or 8 X 8) appears to have originally been a calculation matrix.

Mounds 36 & 37 sit right alongside and to the East of Monk's Mound (38).

Mound 36 is ideally situated to teach a range of values that hover around 600'. One of these is the Greek stadia (stadium) of 630' (60 Hebrew reeds of 10.5' or 600 Greek feet of 12.6"). Alternatively, the value 625' sets up a mathematical progression much used in navigation and lunar calculations. The sum of 6.25-miles (33000') is 1/11th of 1-degree of arc in a world configured to be 24750-miles in equatorial circumference. Another value that would have been taught is 622.08' as the sum of 622.08-miles is 1/40th of the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference.

The azimuth angle to the crown of mound 36 is 84-degrees (half of 168).

Mound 37 sits 604.8' from the hub atop Monk's Mound @ an azimuth angle of 67.5-degrees. The sum of 604.8' is, of course, 1/10th of 1-minute of equatorial arc under the "6&7" navigational system. The merits of 605' (1/10th of 1-minute of arc under the "11" navigational system) would also have been taught.

The azimuth angle to this mound is 67.5-degrees and this represents one of the secondary fix points in a 360-degree compass, with 67.5-degrees representing ENE.

Mound 38 is Monk's Mound or the primary hub mound for the Cahokia complex of mounds, as well as an additional set of 27 or so mounds that were built across the Mississippi River in Old St. Louis Missouri. These other, outer-satellite mounds sat on the high-ground bluffs about 7-miles from Monk's Mound and related back to Monk's Mound by way of coded distances and angles.

An interesting historical detail concerning Monk's Mound is that : Parish in 1906 said: A Mr. Hill, who once lived upon it, while making excavation near the northwest extremity uncovered human bones and white pottery in considerable quantities. The bones, which instantly crumbled to dust on exposure to the air, appeared larger than ordinary, while the teeth were double in front as well as behind. [Parish, 1906: 22].

Also: G. W. Featherstonhaugh visited the mounds at about the same time. He was greatly impressed with Monks Mound and included a drawing with his description (see Figure 5.1). He visited the owner, Amos Hill, who had constructed a house and garden plot on top of the mound. Hill had laid the foundation of his house on an eminence he found on the summit of his elevated territory, and according to Featherstonhaugh, "upon digging into it found large human bones, with Indian pottery, stone axes and tomahawks" (Featherstonhaugh 1844: 264-272).

This kind of testimony related to "large human bones" is consistent with what was found all over North American in the early 1800's when many of the mounds were excavated and the skeletons interred within carefully examined and measured. See: