THE THIRD OUTWARDS CONCENTRIC RING OF THE SOUTHERN CIRCLE
Lines extend out to the stone positions in the southwest quarter of the Avebury Henge site. The largest number of known or surviving positions are in this quarter segment of the outer ring. Because so many of the original stones were destroyed by zealous Christians or other opportunists, and small concrete plinth markers later erected to indicate the former position, we don't know just how big many original stones were. The girth width of the stones was very important to multi-coding and a very wide stone could have carried up to five codes or more across its face or brushing its sides. With each plinth marker shown above at least one code will be offered for consideration and in future analysis we can speculate on what else would have been encoded. On the surviving, large girth, original stones, several codes per stone can be considered now in this analysis.
Some of the values mentioned here will look quite complex, although they're mostly just simple factors that occur in all basic mathematical progressions. There's nothing particularly astounding or intimidating in any of the numbers and all are easily resolvable, except PHI and PI, for which "rounded", substitute values existed. We absolutely know that the ancient mathematician-astronomer-surveyors were using these numbers, as they recur in all of the weights, measures and volumes standards of the cousin Caucasoid nations from remote antiquity.
POSITION 1
The distance is 653.4' - 653^{2}/5' and the angle is 91.125 - 91^{1}/8° (lunar-calendar-navgational). This was also read as 91.3125 - 91^{5}/16° (solar-calendar).
The 653.4' distance is navigational and relates to the "foot" value for the equatorial circumference of the Earth under the "11" family of numbers. This distance at Avebury Henge would be 1/20000th of the equatorial circumference for a world that was 24750-miles around (130680000').
The degree angle from this position back to the obelisk carried two marginally different codes, knowledge of which allowed one to correctly interpret all of the daily positions of the Sun & Moon within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar system. Therefore: The sum of 91.125-days (91^{1}/8) X 28 = 2551.5-days or 7.2-lunar years. The sum of 91.3125-days (91^{5}/16ths) X 28 = 2556.75-days or 7-solar years. These two periods (solar & lunar) ran side by side on ancient Sabbatical Calendar counting boards.
POSITION 2
The distance is 633.6 - 6336^{3}/5' (navigational) and the angle is 88.59375 - 88/^{19}32° (lunar year ...this is 3 lunar months in days).
ROMAN DRY MEASURE (Decimal fractions). | ROMAN DRY MEASURE (Fractions) |
1 Amphora…….1900.8 cubic inches equals: | 1 Amphora…….1900^{4}/5 cubic inches equals: |
3 Modius………633.6 cubic inches, or | 3 Modius………633^{3}/5 cubic inches, or |
32 Choenix…….59.4 cubic inches, or | 32 Choenix…….59^{2}/5 cubic inches, or |
48 Sextarius……39.6 cubic inches, or | 48 Sextarius……39^{3}/5 cubic inches, or |
96 Hemina……...19.8 cubic inches. | 96 Hemina……...19^{4}/5cubic inches. |
The true equatorial circumference of the Earth (131383296 feet or 24883.2-miles of 5280' each) ÷ 633.6 = 207360. This figure (read as 20.736 inches) was the length of the longest Egyptian Royal cubit, which mnemonically coded the 24883.2-mile (true size) assignment.
The "11" series (league, furlong) circumference of the Earth (130680000 feet or 24750-miles of 5280' each) ÷ 633.6 = 206250. This figure (read as 20.625 inches) was the length of the mid-range Egyptian Royal Cubit, which mnemonically coded the 24750-mile assignment.
The "6 & 7" series (yard or reed) circumference of the Earth (130636800 feet) ÷ 633.6 = 206181.8182. This figure (read as 20.61818182 inches) was the length of the Egyptian Royal Cubit, which mnemonically coded the 24741.81818-mile (of 5280') assignment. This same assignment, which is the one literally encoded into the dimensions of the Great Pyramid (@756' per side) was also 24883.2 Greek miles (of 5250' each). There is an Egyptian Royal Cubit of this exact length in the Turin Museum.
POSITION 3
The distance is 614.4 - 614^{2}/5' and the angle is 86.66666666 - 86^{2}/3° (also 86^{2}/5).
The distance is navigational and is based upon the 7.68 (7^{17}/25ths) mathematical progression related to the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference.
The degree angle @ 86.666666 (86 & 2/3rds) is part of a mathematical progression that could be utilised in calendar counting functions, accentuating periods based upon 13, 26 or 52-weeks. Under the ancient Druidic (agrarian or peasant count) calendar, which was derived from the much earlier Sabbatical calendar, there were 13-months of 28-days each in the 52-week year. Correction to the calendar (1.25-days of error accrued per year) occurred at the end of the seventh or sabbatical year, when a 9-day festival added in the missing intercalary days.
(b) Working from this stone's position would also have been the angle of 86.4° back to the obelisk, which related in a dynamic way to navigation, the equatorial circumference of the Earth and the duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes.
POSITION 4
The distance is 600' and the angle is 85.05 - 85^{1}/20°.
The distance is simply accentuating the primary value in a sexagesimal counting system, based upon 6, 60, 600.
The angle relates to the lunar counting system and 85.05-days (85^{1}/20th) would be ^{1}/30th of the period of the moon being monitored within the 2551.5-day (7.2 lunar years) period of the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar system. Also being monitored simultaneously was the solar count of 2556.75-days (7-solar years), which was 30-periods of 85.225-days (85^{9}/40ths). Peg boards like the Druidic Calendar of Coligny were used for keeping daily track of the solar and lunar periods.
POSITION 5
The distance is 583.2' and the angle is 82.5°.
The distance is navigational and, as it turns out, became associated with the Roman foot, pace and mile at a much later era in history. It is a dynamic value that was much used for a couple of thousands of years in Britain before there were any Romans.
The distance is dual coded to be lunar and navigational. The Romans had two renditions of their "foot" and one was lunar (11.664" or 5.832" X 2) which value was also used in the formation of the Egyptian Theban volume (11664-cubic inches). Whereas 5 such Roman feet produced a "Pace" of 58.32", ^{1}/8th of the "Pace" was 7.29" (7^{29}/100ths ... the same length as the Bush Barrow Lozenge artefact from Stonehenge). The length of 583.2' at Avebury would, therefore, be 600 Roman lunar feet or 100 paces and by elongating this measurement by 2" it would equate to 100 overland Roman Paces. Under the Roman equatorial circumference calibration of 131250000 British feet or 25000 Greek miles or 27000 Roman miles, there would be 225000 increments of this Avebury distance (583.2' or 600 Roman feet). This very important increment of distance is dynamically encoded into the Avebury outer landscape as well (from the obelisk to outlying mounds). From the centre obelisk of the henge to the giant stone at the beginning of the West Kennet Avenue the distance was coded to be read as 583.2-feet (see article 5).
ROMAN FOOT DIVISIONS (decimal fractions). | ROMAN FOOT DIVISIONS (fractions). |
1 Stadia……..7290.0 inches equals: | 1 Stadia……..7290.0 inches equals: |
1250 Pace…..58.32 inches. | 1250 Pace…..58^{8}/25 inches. |
Cubit… 24 Digit…17.496 inches. | Cubit… 24 Digit…17^{62}/125 inches. |
Foot… 16 Digit…11.664 inches. | Foot… 16 Digit…11^{83}/125 inches. |
Palm… 4 Digit…. 2.916 inches. | Palm… 4 Digit…. 2^{229}/250 inches. |
Digit… 1 Digit… .729 inches. | Digit… 1 Digit… ^{729}/1000 inches. |
In this picture at least six purpose built marker mounds or standing stone arrangements are seen lying a mile or more beyond Avebury Henge's (former) central, tall obelisk position. Each purpose-built site seen in this northeastern sector carries codes of position in both the distance and angle to them from the Avebury Henge obelisk. The white line shown runs for 5832' (1.2 Roman miles) and resolves upon a standing stone arrangement composed of about 3 large stones and several smaller ones in a compact grouping. The angle to this position from the henge obelisk is 40° azimuth. It's probable that other stone markers, erected very near to this point thousands of years ago, carried the additional angle readings of 39.6 and 40.5° respectively, as these are also very dynamic values used in navigational and lunar mathematical progressions.
A purple AutoCAD line running to the "arrowhead" in the upper right of the picture extends for 6720' from the obelisk at Avebury Henge onto the middle of the stone grouping. This is a very strong navigational number that relates to the equatorial circumference of the Earth. A mathematical progression based upon 672 is dynamic.
The azimuth angle is 42.525° (42^{21}/40ths) and this is a strong lunar code. The sum of 42.525-days would be ^{1}/160th of the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle. It would also be ^{1}/60th of the 2551.5-day period (7.2 lunar years) monitored within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar.
The angle of 82.5° for position 5 is navigational and relates to the "11" series of increments, such as the mile of 5280'. For example, the sum of 82.5' would be ^{1}/64th of a mile or 5 rods, or 15 fathoms, etc.
POSITION 6
The distance is 562.5' and the angle is 79.2°.
The length value of 562.5' is both lunar and navigational coding simultaneously. Alongside this length another one of 560' would have been inferred and a mathematical progression based upon 56 was very important to navigational and lunar calculations also. There were 56-posts on the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge, which were used for calculations and counts.
The angle of 79.2° relates to the diameter of the Earth (7920-miles). Under the ancient "11" series of lengths, there was a "link" of 7.92".
POSITION 7
The distance is 544.32' and the angle is 76.8°.
This distance at Avebury would be ^{1/}240000th of the equatorial size of the Earth under the Great Pyramid's literal geodetic assignment of 756' per side ("6&7" system). A second reading of the distance to this position would be 544.5' or ^{1/}240000th of the 24750-mile equatorial circumference (found by reading the Great Pyramid's side-length value as 756.25' ("11" system).
The angle code relates to the "11" progression of navigational numbers.
POSITION 8
The distance is 525' and the angle is 72.9°.
The length is a "short" Greek stadia or 1/10th of a Greek mile. It's also 500 Greek feet of 12.6" each or 50 Hebrew Reeds (2000-years before there was a Greek civilisation and about 1500-years before King David's golden age for the Hebrews). An adept priest-soothsayer could have kept fully apace with the lunisolar Sabbatical calendar (daily lunar and solar positions) by carrying a calibrated rod or staff of 5.25' length. The position of the moon was vital to predicting the weather.
The azimuth angle of 72.9° is strong lunar coding and one side-to-side cross-measure of the Bush Barrow Lozenge artefact, found buried with a very important individual near Stonehenge (someone contemporary to the era when that site was being used scientifically), was, undoubtedly, intended to convey 7.29" or ^{1}/8th of a Roman Pace (58.32").
ROMAN FOOT DIVISIONS.
1 Stadia……..7290.0
inches equals:
1250 Pace…..58.32 inches, etc.
POSITION 9
(a) The distance is 504' and the angle is 70.4°.
ALEXANDRIAN WEIGHT.
1 Talent…….403200.0 grains
equals:
60 Mina…….6720.0 grains, or
80 Libra…….5040.0 grains, or
960 Uncia…..420 grains.
The length carries strong lunar coding and a mathematical progression based upon 504 factors easily into the durations of lunar cycles or counts. For example, the 6804-day duration of the lunar nutation cycle is 135 periods of 50.4-days.
The degree angle is navigational under the "11" series of numbers and 70.4' would be ^{1}/75th of a mile.
(b) The distance is 500' and the angle is 69.12°.
The length code would be self-explanatory and relate to a decimal system within the more expansive grouping of counting systems that used all of the number families. Ancient mathematicians at Avebury Henge did counting using base 10, as did their Caucasoid cousin nations around the Mediterranean and Europe or further afield.
The angle code is navigational and in a world calibrated to have an equatorial circumference of 24883.2-miles (of 5280' or 5250') the sum of 69.12-miles represented 1-degree of arc.
POSITION 10
The distance is 486' and the angle is 66°.
The 486 numerical value was very important to to lunar and navigational calculations and the Druidic Calendar of Coligny brass plaque was carefully fashioned to be 4.86' long (58.32"). It's width dimension was also lunar @ 2.953125' or 35.4375" (35^{7}/16ths inches). The lunar year is 354.375-days.
The sunrise "first glint" position at Stonehenge, at the time of the Summer Solstice, was intended to convey 48.6° of azimuth rise and Stonehenge was placed 17.25-miles almost due South of Avebury to achieve that solar result.
There would be 486 X 5.25-days in the 7.2-lunar year count monitored within the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar or 487 X 525-days for the solar count.
The angle accentuates the "11" series lengths, such as the chain @ 66' or the furlong (furrowlong) @ 660'.
POSITION 11
The distance is 472.5' and the angle is 62.5°.
HEBREW JERUSALEM WEIGHT (LIGHT).
1 Talent……… 472500.0
grains equals:
60 Mina………7875 grains, or
3000 Shekels…157.5 grains.
This length to the northern side of the stone is the design height of the Khafre Pyramid of the Giza Plateau (Egypt's Pyramid of the Moon). In the 3,4,5 triangle configuration by which the pyramid was designed and built, the adjacent horizontal was 354.375' (lunar year code); the opposite vertical was 472.5' (in days this would be 16 lunar months) and the hypotenuse diagonal was 590.625' (in days this would be 20 lunar months).
The azimuth angle back to the obelisk was 62.5° and this value formed a very important base for a mathematical progression that was decimal, lunar and navigational simultaneously.
(b) The distance is 468.75' and the angle is 62.208°.
In this second reading to the centre face of the stone, the length identifies a base number that was very useful in decimal, navigational and lunar progressions.
The angle in this second reading, 62.208° (68^{26}/125ths) relates to the equatorial size of the Earth under it's 24883.2-mile assignment. The sum of 6220.8-miles would be ^{1}/4 of the circumference or 90° of arc.
(c) The distance is 472.5' and the angle is 61.804°.
The angle to the southern end of the stone could easily have carried the code of 61.804° and refer to the reciprocal value of PHI. The value of 6.1804" appears to have been the base increment in the precise fabrication of round marketplace tubs for dispensing grain in exact volumes (bushels, etc.).
POSITION 12
The distance is 458.33333' and the angle is 57.6°.
This length is a part of an "11" series mathematical progression used in navigation incorporating the 5280' mile. There would be 54 X 458.33333-miles in the 24750-mile equatorial circumference.
The 57.6-degree azimuth angle introduces one of the most dynamic, factorable values of antiquity. It was used copiously in all manner of navigational, calendar, Precession of the Equinoxes, area or volume calculations. The Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge @ 288' diameter is 5 X 57.6' across. The distance up the side faces of the Great Pyramid to the edge of the top altar floor was intended to convey 576'.
POSITION 13
The distance is 450' and the angle extending from the obelisk is 234.66666° (234^{2}/3rds).
The distance relates to the compass divisions where 45° represents ^{1}/8th of 360°.
The 234.666666 code is merely accentuating the value 704, which was important to the mile of 5280'. The sum of 3 X 234.666666 = 704.
(b) The distance is 442.96875' (442^{31}/32nds) and the angle is 54°.
The distance, although complex looking was a whole number and simple fraction related to the lunar cycle. The sum of 44.296875 days (44^{19}/64th) was ^{1}/8th part of the lunar year.
The angle of 54° accentuates a value that was very important within lunar period counts. A circuit of 54 post positions would have worked admirably for calculations within the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle (54 periods of 126-days) or the 2551.5-day lunar count (7.2 lunar years) of the Sabbatical Calendar (54 X 47.25-days). These counts could have been done using the base dimensions of either the Great Pyramid or Khafre Pyramid, which were 24 X 126' (Great Pyramid) or 22.5 X 126' (Khafre). in perimeter values respectively. A side length of the Great Pyramid was 16 X 47.25' and the Khafre Pyramid was 15 X 47.25'. The sum of 126' was 12 Hebrew reeds.
POSITION 14
The distance is 440' and the angle is 50.4°.
The length of 440' is ^{1}/12th of a mile of 5280'.
The angle code of 50.4° provides a dynamic value used in both lunar and navigational computations. The sum of 100.8' (2 X 50.4) was 1-second of arc for the equatorial circumference of the Earth under the Great Pyramid's literal geodetic assignment. In other words, 100.8' X 60 X 60 X 360 = the 24883.2 Greek mile circumference of the Earth. The diameter of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge in one cross measure is 100.8'.
POSITION 15
The distance is 432' and the angle is 44.55°.
This length carries one of the very important codes of antiquity and the Great Pyramid's base perimeter was 4320 Celtic or Hebrew Royal Cubits of 21" each. The value 432 and mathematical progressions derived therefrom were very useful in navigation, Precession of the Equinoxes or computations related to the size of the Earth. There would be 86.4 (43.2 X 2) lunar months in the 2551.5-day lunar count of the Sabbatical Calendar.
The angle of 44.55° (44^{11}/20ths) is part of a navigational progression related to the 24750-mile equatorial circumference and the value 44.55 is simply 2.475 X 18.
POSITION 16
The distance is 429.6875 and the angle is 39.6°.
SEPPHORIS DRY VOLUME.
1 Homer….28512 cubic inches equals
10 Ephah….2851.20 cubic inches., or
30 Seah…..950.40 cubic inches, or
180 Cab….158.4 cubic inches, or
720 Log….39.6 cubic inches.
Under the 24750-mile equatorial circumference, 1-degree of arc was 68.75-miles. The sum of 4.296875-miles (4^{19}/64ths) was ^{1}/16th of 1-degree of arc.
The degree angle also relates to the size of the Earth, albeit its diameter and 3960-miles is the radius of the Earth to its centre.
POSITION 17
The distance is 414.72' and the angle is 35°.
This length relates to the 24883.2-mile circumference of the Earth, in which 414.72 (414^{18}/25ths) would be ^{1}/60th part or 6° of arc.
The angle is a part of a "7" based progression, useful in calendar and navigational computations.
POSITION 18
The distance is 403.2' and the angle is 30.24°.
ALEXANDRIAN WEIGHT.
1 Talent…….403200.0
grains equals:
60 Mina…….6720.0 grains, or
80 Libra…….5040.0 grains, or
960 Uncia…..420 grains.
The length relates to the equatorial circumference of the Earth and would be 3 seconds of arc under the Great Pyramid's geodetic assignment.
The angle contains a tutorial about navigation. The Great Pyramid was 3024' for one circumnavigation and this distance was half of 1-minute of arc for the equatorial circumference of the Earth.
POSITION 19
The distance is 384' and the angle is 26°.
The number 384 was useful in a mathematical progression relating to navigation, as well as calendar computations. The progression is based upon the number 48. (48 X 8 = 384). There are 24-hours in a day, etc.
The degree angle accentuates an important value in calendar counts, as there were 13-months of 28-days each in the Sabbatical Calendar year. The sum of 26-weeks represented half a year.
POSITION 20
The distance is 365.25' and the angle is 21°.
The distance identifies the number of days in a solar year.
The value 21 (half of 42) provided a dynamic mathematical progression that was at the foundation of the whole "6&7"combined counting system. Navigation by the Greek mile of 5250' or associated increments and all calendar or lunar cycle duration computations were dependent upon this combination (6 X 7 = 42).
POSITION 21
The distance is 350' and the angle is 16°.
The length provided a septimal mathematical progression useful in calendar calculations.
A 16 progression (4 X 4) was very useful in navigation, compass calibrations or lunar calculations. The Druidic Calendar of Coligny was divided up into 128 panels (16 X 8) and ancient calculation boards were often 8 X 8 squares (the predecessors to the chess board).
POSITION 22
The distance is 333.3333' and the angle is 10.5°.
The length is simply ^{1}/3rd of 1000 feet and contains a simple tutorial about dividing a 10 based number by 3.
The degree angle is dynamic and accentuates a very important value at the base of the whole "6&7" family of navigational numbers and lunar counting method. The ancient Hebrew reed was 10.5'.
POSITION 23
This original stone offers several possibilities for codes
(a) The distance is 315' (also 314.16).
As has been demonstrated, a line running from the obelisk position at Avebury Henge to the centre of Windmill Hill is, rationally, on an azimuth angle of 314.16° (coding PI X 100). The so-called Greek stadia (630') is 2 X 315' and represents a rounded form of PI (X 100). It, essentially, has PI built in to it. The inner rim circuit of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge was meant to convey 315' of circumference, which could also be read as 314.16' for a diameter of 100'.
(b) The distance is 311.04' and the angle is 178.2°.
The sum of 311.04-miles would be 1/80th of the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference.
The "Y" Holes circle at Stonehenge was intended to be 178.2 feet wide and this is a navigational progression.
(c) The distance is 309.375 and the angle is 177.1875°.
In a world that had a circumference of 24750-miles, the sum of 309.375-miles would be ^{1}/80th.
The degree angle of 177.1875° (177^{3}/16ths) would be, in days, half of a lunar year.
(d) The distance is 312.5' and the angle is 176°.
The ancient league (16500') was 3^{1}/8-miles.
The angle of 176° identifies a very important value in the "11" series navigational system and 1760' equals ^{1}/3rd of a mile.
POSITION 24
(a) The distance is 302.4' and the angle is 352°.
This length is 3-seconds of equatorial arc (100.8' X 3). The Great Pyramid @ 756' per side is 3024' (half a minute of arc) for one circumnavigation. Alongside any tutorial related to this length, another one would have identified 302.5'. Under the Great Pyramid's second navigational system (based upon the "11" series mile, one half of 1-minute of arc was 3050'.
The return angle back to the obelisk @ 352° relates to the "11" series mile of 5280', of which 352' would be ^{1}/15th part.
(b) The distance is 293.3333333' and the angle is 170.1°.
The length of 293.3333333' would simply be ^{1}/8th of a mile.
The degree angle from the obelisk to this position (170.1°) is lunar. The 6804-day lunar nutation cycle is 4 X 1701-days.
(c) The distance is 295.3125' and the angle is 168.75°.
The distance is identifying a value related to the lunar month (29.53125-days or 29^{17}/32nds). We have this same value encoded, in several locations, into our New Zealand landscape, half a world removed from Avebury Henge.
The degree angle is lunar coding also and a mathematical progression based upon 168.75 provides many highly useful lunar numbers. The sum of 1.75 X 168.75 = 295.3125.
Three former marker mound positions are vaguely detectable in this field. As the crop grows the marks get more and more vague, until after the harvest when they're easy to see once again. The white line runs from the obelisk position at Avebury Henge and resolves upon one of the former mounds. The distance to this position is 9843.75'. The sum of 29.53125-days ÷ 3 = 9.84375-days.
The angle back to the obelisk at Avebury Henge is 29.53125° (29^{17}/32nds ... coding the lunar month). This is half of 59.0625 (59^{1}/16th).
GREEK COMMERCIAL WEIGHT (decimal fractions). | GREEK COMMERCIAL WEIGHT (fractions). |
1 Talent………….590625.0 grains equals: | 1 Talent………….590625.0 grains equals: |
60 Mina………….9843.75 grains, or | 60 Mina………….9843^{3}/4 grains, or |
3000 Didrachma…196.875 grains, or | 3000 Didrachma…196^{7}/8 grains, or |
6000 Drachma……98.4375 grains. | 6000 Drachma……98^{7}/16 grains. |
So far in this analysis of marked positions in and around Avebury Henge, we've considered less that half of what's still available to test.
The reader-researcher will begin to appreciate the mammoth effort expended by ancient British society to put such an array of structures in place, but will also begin to understand why it was done. One has to remember that at a time when there was no great availability of paper to make text-books of instruction, lessons had to be taught and learnt by grueling rote and repetition, coupled with hands on experience. There was no other avenue available to ancient tutors, but to set out structures across the landscape and commit to memory the refined scientific information incorporated into each position. A purpose-placed stone or marker-mound represented a mnemonic device or memory trigger repository of coded information, but the real knowledge reposed in the mind of the master.
Countless generations of navigators, astronomers, architects, engineers and mathematicians learned their trades at this open air university. For mariner-navigators especially, the lessons had to be learnt very thoroughly, as the open sea did not abide fools well or forgive them for their ignorance.